The two faces of alcohol myopia
: Attentional mediation of psychological stress.
This finding may relate to alcohol myopia
theory (Steele & Joseph, 1990).
However, if alcohol consumption increases the importance of more immediate cues and reduces that of less immediate ones, as alcohol myopia
assumes, then the consumption of alcohol can also increase prudent behavior if the associated costs of a lottery are in the present and the rewards are in the future.
An early theory proposed by Steele and Josephs, the so-called "Alcohol Myopia
", has been used by several authors in an attempt to explain the various behavioral effects of the substance (Josephs & Steele, 1990; Steele & Josephs, 1988, 1990).
An effect of alcohol known as "alcohol myopia
" may also explain aggressive behavior in social overtures (Josephs & Steele, 1990; Steele, Critchlow, & Liu, 1985; Steele & Josephs, 1990; Steele & Southwick, 1985).
Scientists first identified the idea of "beer goggles" in the early 1990s when it was dubbed "alcohol myopia
", which meant that most men overestimated women's ages after getting drunk.
Religious convictions (Poulson, Eppler, Satterwhite, Wuensch, & Bass, 1998), alcohol myopia
(Cooper, 2002; MacDonald, MacDonald, Zanna, & Fong, 2000.), and the length and type of relationship between the sexual partners (Halpern-Felsher et al., 1996) have been explored.
Models such as alcohol myopia
, which proposes that alcohol reduces attention to cues that inhibit aggression, and the anxiolysis disinhibition model, which proposes that alcohol dampens the anxiety associated with inhibitory cues, provide useful frameworks for a better understanding of intoxicated aggression.
One interpretation of these findings is that when under the influence of ethanol, individuals exhibit 'alcohol myopia
'--a state where the immediate, short-term consequences of a behaviour are more readily acted upon than distal, longer-term consequences (Herzog, 1999; Steele & Josephs, 1990).
Many behavioral studies, specifically studies of alcohol myopia
, have explored the effect of alcohol on risk taking (Fromme et al., 1997), condom use (MacDonald et al., 2000), sexual decision-making (Davis et al., 2007), and drinking and driving (MacDonald et al., 1995).
This narrowing of the perceptual field, or tunnel vision, has also been referred to as "alcohol myopia
," defined as "shortsightedness in which superficially understood, immediate aspects of experience have a disproportionate influence on behavior and emotion" (Steele & Josephs, 1990, p.
" is a term often used to refer to such cognitive narrowing.