For each substrate, we prepared at least eight different substrate concentrations in methanol (Table 1) and further diluted them in the reaction mixture to a final volume of 100 [micro]L, containing 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, 10 mM magnesium chloride, the specific concentration of liver or intestinal microsomes (0.1 mg/mL for BPS, 0.05 mg/mL for BPF, and 0.01 mg/mL for BPAF), and alamethicin (5% of the total protein concentration).
Differences between human and rat intestinal and hepatic bisphenol A glucuronidation and the influence of alamethicin on in vitro kinetic measurements.
Trichoderma viride cellulase induces resistance to the antibiotic pore-forming peptide alamethicin
associated with changes in the plasma membrane lipid composition of tobaccoBY-2 cells.
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDPGA), magnesium chloride (Mg[Cl.sub.2]), alamethicin, D-saccharic-1, and 4-lactone were provided from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
Briefly, the incubation mixture mainly contained 50 mM Tris-hydrochloric acid buffer (pH = 7.4), 0.88 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2], 22 [micro]g/mL alamethicin, 4.4 mM saccharolactone, and 3.5 mM UDPGA.
Uridine 5'diphosphate-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) trisodium salt and alamethicin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
The incubation system consisted of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4), 0.25 mg/ml proteins (HLMs, HIMs, HKMs, or UGTs), 25 [micro]g/ml alamethicin, 8 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2], 1 mM UDPGA, and 5, 20, 50, or 200 [micro]M WEL in a total volume of 200 [mciro]l.
coli--with a commercially available anti-Salmonella antibody and the antimicrobial peptide alamethicin
. A Langmuir isotherm model was applied to determine the binding affinity constants of the peptides to the pathogens.
Jelinek, "Microscopic visualization of alamethicin
incorporation into model membrane monolayers," Langmuir, vol.
An example for antimicrobial peptides that follows barrel-stave mechanisms includes alamethicin
and gramicidin S [76-78].
In summary, neither deoxycholate (a common detergent used in [Na.sup.+],[K.sup.+]-ATPase assays) nor alamethicin
(a membrane-permeabilizing agent) had any effect on the total [Na.sup.+],[K.sup.+]-ATPase activity in homogenates of S.
All major branches of chemistry were represented, covering topics from alamethicin
to zeolites, from cyclodextrin to circular dichroism, and from the synthesis of Bao Gong Ten (by Vinh C.