airway wall remodelling

airway wall remodelling

A series of structural changes seen in the airways of patients with severe asthma, including interstitial fibrosis and reduced responsiveness to therapy.
Components Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle, myofibroblast activation (increased subepithelial basement membrane collagen deposition), angiogenesis (increased submucosal blood vessels), and increased airway epithelial goblet cells. The increased smooth-muscle mass and thickened subepithelial basement membrane are controlled by a complex interaction between mesenchymal growth factors (TGF, EGF, IGF) and their receptors and the balance between degradative enzymes (e.g., the matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-9, and its inhibitor, TIMP-1); tissue remodelling, as demonstrated by collagen deposition and expansion of the smooth-muscle mass, may be driven by an imbalance in this delicately controlled system. Tissue remodelling may also involve increased neural innervation, and nerve growth factor has been implicated in upregulating neuropeptides (substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide) in the primary sensory neurones innervating inflamed tissues.
References in periodicals archive ?
Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways causing reversible airflow obstruction, airway hyper responsiveness, mucous hyper secretion and airway wall remodelling. Incidence of allergic asthma has increased in the past few years due to urbanisation.
Besides functioning as a proinflammatory factor, EGF contributes to airway wall remodelling [29].
Animal and human studies have demonstrated that BT results in substantial regression of airway smooth muscle, [5,6] but other mechanisms may underpin the beneficial effects, including an impact on airway wall remodelling, immune modulation and neurogenic function.
[80] demonstrated that upregulation of granzyme B in CD8(+) and non-CD8(+) cells is an early phenomenon of small airway wall remodelling in centrilobular emphysema, suggesting a possible role in the pathogenesis of COPD.