patterns have also been implicated in malaria incidence across the globe, including reports of so-called airport malaria
, refugee outbreaks, and cases in migrant populations (9-12).
ovale (Stephens 1922) which occurred in central Spain in 2001, although airport malaria
cannot be ruled out in this case due to the proximity of the patient's residence to two international airports (13).
Malaria transmission very rarely occurs outside malaria transmission areas--in the form of Odyssean or airport malaria
, or needle and transfusion malaria.
And, more rarely, cases of "airport malaria
" occur, blamed on mosquitoes aboard aircraft returning from infected areas.
Previous reports have documented malaria transmission by mosquitoes unintentionally transported by aircraft from areas where malaria is endemic ("airport malaria
") (3); however, the nearest airport receiving international flights is in Atlanta, approximately 175 miles from Tift County and beyond the radius of travel for a mosquito.
Runway malaria is an example of imported malaria, while examples of odyssean malaria include airport malaria
, baggage malaria, luggage malaria, suitcase malaria, container malaria, port malaria, taxi rank malaria and minibus malaria.
Origin and prevention of airport malaria
Possible sources of infection for the case described in this report also included infected anopheline mosquitoes inadvertently transported to Michigan on aircraft ("airport malaria
") (5) and unrecognized or unreported malaria infections among recent immigrants, migrant workers, and travelers from malaria-endemic countries.
Three components contribute to an optimum diagnostic outcome: awareness, which includes taking an adequate travel history and also remembering that malaria transmission occasionally occurs outside endemic areas (Odyssean or airport malaria
, and needle and transfusion malaria); clinical astuteness and experience; and laboratory tests.
The patient lives 4 and 18 km away from international airports, within the radius of other previously reported airport malaria
(i.e., inadvertent transportation of infective anophelines on airplanes) is unlikely.
The intercontinental transfer of malaria can occur through the introduction of an infective vector into a nonendemic-disease area, as in so-called airport malaria
, [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] through the movement of a parasitemic person to a nonendemic-disease area, as [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] imported malaria.