disease /dis·ease/ (dĭ-zēz´) any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any body part, organ, or system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs and whose etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown. See also entries under syndrome.
acquired cystic disease of kidney
the development of cysts in the formerly noncystic failing kidney in end-stage renal disease
Addison's disease bronzelike pigmentation of the skin, severe prostration, progressive anemia, low blood pressure, diarrhea, and digestive disturbance, due to adrenal hypofunction.
allogeneic disease graft-versus-host reaction occurring in immunosuppressed animals receiving injections of allogeneic lymphocytes.
Alpers' disease a rare disease of young children, characterized by neuronal deterioration of the cerebral cortex and elsewhere, progressive mental deterioration, motor disturbances, seizures, and early death.
alpha chain disease heavy chain disease characterized by plasma cell infiltration of the lamina propria of the small intestine resulting in malabsorption with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss, possibly accompanied by pulmonary involvement.
Alzheimer's disease progressive degenerative disease of the brain, of unknown cause; characterized by diffuse atrophy throughout the cerebral cortex with distinctive histopathological changes.
apatite deposition disease a connective tissue disorder marked by deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in one or more joints or bursae.
arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) atherosclerotic involvement of arteries to the heart and to other organs, resulting in debility or death; sometimes used specifically for ischemic heart disease.
autoimmune disease any of a group of disorders in which tissue injury is associated with humoral or cell-mediated responses to the body's own constituents; they may be systemic or organ-specific.
Ayerza's disease polycythemia vera
with chronic cyanosis, dyspnea, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow hyperplasia, and pulmonary artery sclerosis.
Barlow disease scurvy in infants.
, Batten-Mayou disease
Binswanger's disease a degenerative dementia of presenile onset caused by demyelination of the subcortical white matter of the brain.
a fatal disease of sheep, and sometimes of humans, in the United States and Australia, due to Clostridium novyi,
marked by necrotic areas in the liver.
Bowen's disease a squamous cell carcinoma in situ, often due to prolonged exposure to arsenic; usually occurring on sun-exposed areas of skin. The corresponding lesion on the glans penis is termed erythroplasia of Queyrat.
mild recrudescence of epidemic typhus
years after the initial infection, because Rickettsia prowazekii
has persisted in body tissue in an inactive state, with humans as the reservoir.
broad beta disease familial dysbetalipoproteinemia; named for the electrophoretic mobility of the abnormal chylomicron and very-low-density lipoprotein remnants produced.
calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease
(CPDD) an acute or chronic inflammatory arthropathy caused by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals in the joints, chondrocalcinosis, and crystals in the synovial fluid. Acute attacks are sometimes called pseudogout.
Calvé-Perthes disease osteochondrosis of capitular epiphysis of femur.
Canavan disease , Canavan-van Bogaert-Bertrand disease spongy degeneration of the central nervous system.
Castleman disease a benign or premalignant condition resembling lymphoma but without recognizable malignant cells; there are isolated masses of lymphoid tissue and lymph node hyperplasia, usually in the abdominal or mediastinal area.
a usually benign, self-limited disease of the regional lymph nodes, caused by Bartonella henselae
and characterized by a papule or pustule at the site of a cat scratch, subacute painful regional lymphadenitis, and mild fever.
celiac disease a malabsorption syndrome precipitated by ingestion of gluten-containing foods, with loss of villous structure of the proximal intestinal mucosa, bulky, frothy diarrhea, abdominal distention, flatulence, weight loss, and vitamin and electrolyte depletion.
trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma cruzi;
its course may be acute, subacute, or chronic.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease muscular atrophy of variable inheritance, beginning in the muscles supplied by the peroneal nerves and progressing to those of the hands and arms.
cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) a lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of lysosomal cholesterol esterase, variably characterized by some combination of hepatomegaly, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, and premature atherosclerosis.
chronic granulomatous disease frequent, severe infections of the skin, oral and intestinal mucosa, reticuloendothelial system, bones, lungs, and genitourinary tract associated with a genetically determined defect in the intracellular bactericidal function of leukocytes.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) any disorder marked by persistent obstruction of bronchial air flow.
any of a group of diseases characterized by widespread pathologic changes in connective tissue; they include lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, polyarteritis nodosa, thrombotic purpura, rheumatic fever, and rheumatoid arthritis. Cf. collagen disorder.
communicable disease a disease the causative agents of which may pass or be carried from one person to another directly or indirectly.
Concato's disease progressive malignant polyserositis with large effusions into the pericardium, pleura, and peritoneum.
constitutional disease one involving a system of organs or one with widespread symptoms.
coronary artery disease (CAD) atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, which may cause angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and sudden death; risk factors include hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and low levels of high-density lipoproteins.
Cowden disease a hereditary disease marked by multiple ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal nevoid and neoplastic anomalies.
a rare prion disease
existing in sporadic, familial, and infectious forms, with onset usually in middle life, and having a wide variety of clinical and pathological features. The most commonly seen are spongiform degeneration of neurons, neuronal loss, gliosis
, and amyloid plaque formation, accompanied by rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus
, motor disturbances, and encephalographic changes, with death occurring usually within a year of onset.
see under syndrome.
Crohn's disease regional enteritis
; a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease usually in the terminal ileum with scarring and thickening of the wall, often leading to intestinal obstruction and formation of fistulas and abscesses.
Cushing's disease Cushing's syndrome in which the hyperadrenocorticism is secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone.
cystic disease of breast
mammary dysplasia with formation of blue dome cysts
cytomegalic inclusion disease , cytomegalovirus disease an infection due to cytomegalovirus and marked by nuclear inclusion bodies in enlarged infected cells. In the congenital form, there is hepatosplenomegaly with cirrhosis, and microcephaly with mental or motor retardation. Acquired disease may cause a clinical state similar to infectious mononucleosis. When acquired by blood transfusion, postperfusion syndrome results.
deficiency disease a condition caused by dietary or metabolic deficiency, including all diseases due to an insufficient supply of essential nutrients.
demyelinating disease any condition characterized by destruction of the myelin sheaths of nerves.
disappearing bone disease gradual resorption of a bone or group of bones, sometimes associated with multiple hemangiomas, usually in children or young adults and following trauma.
diverticular disease a general term including the prediverticular state, diverticulosis, and diverticulitis.
Dukes' disease a febrile disease of childhood marked by an exanthematous eruption, probably due to a virus of the Coxsackie-ECHO group.
Ebola virus disease
fatal acute hemorrhagic fever resembling Marburg virus disease
but caused by Ebola virus, seen in the Sudan and Zaire.
see under anomaly.
extrapyramidal disease any of a group of clinical disorders marked by abnormal involuntary movements, alterations in muscle tone, and postural disturbances; they include parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, etc.
Fabry's disease an X-linked lysosomal storage disease of glycosphingolipid catabolism resulting from deficiency of α-galactosidase A and leading to accumulation of ceramide trihexoside in the cardiovascular and renal systems.
Farber's disease a lysosomal storage disease due to defective ceramidase and characterized by hoarseness, aphonia, dermatitis, bone and joint deformities, granulomatous reaction, and psychomotor retardation.
Fazio-Londe disease a rare type of progressive bulbar palsy occurring in childhood.
fibrocystic disease of breast a form of mammary dysplasia with formation of cysts of various size containing a semitransparent, turbid fluid that imparts a brown to blue color to the unopened cysts; believed due to abnormal hyperplasia of the ductal epithelium and dilatation of the ducts of the mammary gland, resulting from exaggeration and distortion of normal menstrual cycle–related breast changes.
focal disease a localized disease.
foot-and-mouth disease an acute, contagious viral disease of wild and domestic cloven-footed animals and occasionally humans, marked by vesicular eruption on the lips, buccal cavity, pharynx, legs, and feet.
Fox-Fordyce disease a persistent and recalcitrant, itchy, papular eruption, chiefly of the axillae and pubes, due to inflammation of apocrine sweat glands.
Freiberg's disease osteochondrosis of the head of the second metatarsal bone.
gastroesophageal reflux disease
(GERD) any condition resulting from gastroesophageal reflux, characterized by heartburn and regurgitation; see also reflux esophagitis.
Gaucher's disease a hereditary disorder of glucocerebroside metabolism, marked by the presence of Gaucher's cells in the marrow, and by hepatosplenomegaly and erosion of the cortices of long bones and pelvis. The adult form is associated with moderate anemia and thrombocytopenia, and yellowish pigmentation of the skin; in the infantile form there is, in addition, marked central nervous system impairment; in the juvenile form there are rapidly progressive systemic manifestations but moderate central nervous system involvement.
genetic disease a general term for any disorder caused by a genetic mechanism, comprising chromosome aberrations (or anomalies), mendelian (or monogenic or single-gene) disorders, and multifactorial disorders.
gestational trophoblastic disease
see under neoplasia.
Gilbert disease a familial, benign elevation of bilirubin levels without evidence of liver damage or hematologic abnormalities.
Gilles de la Tourette's disease
see under syndrome.
glycogen storage disease any of a number of rare inborn errors of metabolism caused by defects in specific enzymes or transporters involved in the metabolism of glycogen.
type I glucose-6-phosphatase
deficiency: a severe hepatorenal form due to deficiency of the hepatic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase
, resulting in liver and kidney involvement, with hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, and gout
a form resembling type I
but additionally predisposing to infection due to neutropenia and to chronic inflammatory bowel disease; due to a defect in the transport system for glucose 6-phosphate.
type II a disorder due to deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-1,4,-glucosidase, the severe infant form resulting in generalized glycogen accumulation, with cardiomegaly, cardiorespiratory failure, and death, and a milder adult form being a gradual skeletal myopathy that sometimes causes respiratory problems.
a form due to deficiency of debrancher enzyme
) in muscle, liver, or both; defects in the liver enzyme are characterized by hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia while defects in the muscle enzyme are characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness.
type IV brancher enzyme
deficiency; cirrhosis of the liver, hepatosplenomegaly, progressive hepatic failure, and death due to deficiency of the glycogen brancher enzyme
(1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme).
muscle weakness and cramping after exercise due to deficiency of the muscle isozyme of 6-phosphofructokinase
graft-versus-host (GVH) disease disease caused by the immune response of histoincompatible, immunocompetent donor cells against the tissue of immunocompromised host, as a complication of bone marrow transplantation, or as a result of maternal-fetal blood transfusion, or therapeutic transfusion to an immunocompromised recipient.
Graves' disease an association of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos, with accelerated pulse rate, profuse sweating, nervous symptoms, psychic disturbances, emaciation, and elevated basal metabolism.
Greenfield's disease former name for the late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy.
Gull's disease atrophy of the thyroid gland with myxedema.
Hallervorden-Spatz disease an autosomal recessive disorder caused by decreased numbers of myelin sheaths of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, with accumulation of iron pigment, progressive rigidity beginning in the legs, choreoathetoid movements, dysarthria, and mental deterioration.
hand-foot-and-mouth disease a mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, with vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet.
a chronic, progressive form of multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis
, sometimes with accumulation of cholesterol, characterized by the triad of calvarial bone defects, exophthalmos, and diabetes insipidus.
Hartnup disease a hereditary disorder of intestinal and renal transport of neutral α-amino acids, marked by a pellagra-like skin rash, with transient cerebellar ataxia, constant renal aminoaciduria, and other biochemical abnormalities.
Hashimoto's disease a progressive disease of the thyroid gland with degeneration of its epithelial elements and replacement by lymphoid and fibrous tissue.
heavy chain diseases a group of malignant neoplasms of lymphoplasmacytic cells marked by the presence of immunoglobulin heavy chains or heavy chain fragments; they are classified according to heavy chain type, e.g., alpha chain disease.
Heine-Medin disease the major form of poliomyelitis.
hemoglobin disease any of various hereditary molecular diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobins in the red blood cells; the homozygous form is manifested by hemolytic anemia.
hemorrhagic disease of the newborn a self-limited hemorrhagic disorder of the first few days of life, due to deficiency of vitamin K–dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X.
Heubner-Herter disease the infantile form of celiac disease.
hip-joint disease tuberculosis of the hip joint.
Hodgkin's disease a form of malignant lymphoma marked clinically by painless, progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue; other symptoms may include anorexia, lassitude, weight loss, fever, pruritus, night sweats, and anemia. Reed-Sternberg cells are characteristically present. Four types have been distinguished on the basis of histopathologic criteria.
infection with the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale
or Necator americanus,
whose larvae enter the body through the skin or in contaminated food or water and migrate to the small intestine where, as adults, they attach to the mucosa and ingest blood; symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, colic or nausea, and anemia.
hyaline membrane disease
a type of respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
in which there is formation of a hyaline-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages; extensive atelectasis is attributed to lack of surfactant.
an infection, usually of the liver, due to larval forms of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus,
marked by development of expanding cysts.
hypophosphatemic bone disease an inherited disorder resembling a mild form of X-linked hypophosphatemia, similarly due to a defect in renal tubular function but usually showing osteomalacia without radiographic evidence of rickets.
immune complex disease local or systemic disease caused by the formation of circulating immune complexes and their deposition in tissue, due to activation of complement and to recruitment and activation of leukocytes in type III hypersensitivity reactions.
infectious disease one due to organisms ranging in size from viruses to parasitic worms; it may be contagious in origin, result from nosocomial organisms, or be due to endogenous microflora from the nose and throat, skin, or bowel.
inflammatory bowel disease any idiopathic inflammatory disease of the bowel, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
intercurrent disease one occurring during the course of another disease with which it has no connection.
ischemic heart disease (IHD) any of a group of acute or chronic cardiac disabilities resulting from insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart.
the late infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
, occurring between two and four years of age, characterized by abnormal accumulation of lipofuscin; beginning as myoclonic seizures and progressing to neurologic and retinal deterioration and death by age 8 to 12.
jumping disease any of several culture-specific disorders characterized by exaggerated responses to small stimuli, muscle tics including jumping, obedience even to dangerous suggestions, and sometimes coprolalia or echolalia.
Kashin-Bek (Kaschin-Beck) disease a disabling degenerative disease of the peripheral joints and spine, endemic in northeastern Asia; believed to be caused by ingestion of cereal grains infected with the fungus Fusarium sporotrichiella.
Kawasaki disease a febrile illness usually affecting infants and young children, with conjunctival injection, changes to the oropharyngeal mucosa, changes to the peripheral extremities including edema, erythema, and desquamation, a primarily truncal polymorphous exanthem, and cervical lymphadenopathy. It is often associated with vasculitis of the large coronary vessels.
Kienböck's disease slowly progressive osteochondrosis of the lunate bone; it may affect other wrist bones.
Köhler's bone disease
1. osteochondrosis of the tarsal navicular bone in children.
2. thickening of the shaft of the second metatarsal bone and changes about its articular head, with pain in the second metatarsophalangeal joint on walking or standing.
Krabbe's disease a lysosomal storage disease beginning in infancy, due to deficiency of β-galactosidase. Pathologically, there is rapidly progressive cerebral demyelination and large globoid bodies (swollen with accumulated cerebroside) in the white substance.
the adult form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
, with onset prior to age 40; characterized by progressive neurologic deterioration but not blindness, excessive storage of lipofuscin, and shortened life expectancy;
Kümmell's disease compression fracture of vertebra, with symptoms a few weeks after injury, including spinal pain, intercostal neuralgia, lower limb motor disturbances, and kyphosis.
Kyasanur Forest disease a fatal viral disease of monkeys in the Kyasanur Forest of India, communicable to humans, in whom it produces hemorrhagic symptoms.
Kyrle's disease a chronic disorder of keratinization marked by keratotic plugs that develop in hair follicles and eccrine ducts, penetrating the epidermis and extending down into the corium, causing foreign-body reaction and pain.
an often fatal bacterial infection caused by Legionella pneumophila,
not spread by person-to-person contact, characterized by high fever, gastrointestinal pain, headache, and pneumonia; there may also be involvement of the kidneys, liver, and nervous system.
Leiner's disease a disorder of infancy characterized by generalized seborrhea-like dermatitis and erythroderma, severe intractable diarrhea, recurrent infections, and failure to thrive.
Little's disease congenital spastic stiffness of the limbs, a form of cerebral palsy due to lack of development of the pyramidal tracts.
a recurrent multisystemic disorder caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi,
the vectors being the ticks Ixodes scapularis
and I. pacificus;
usually initially characterized by lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, followed by various manifestations including arthritis of the large joints, myalgia, and neurologic and cardiac abnormalities.
lysosomal storage disease an inborn error of metabolism with (1) a defect in a specific lysosomal enzyme; (2) intracellular accumulation of an unmetabolized substrate; (3) clinical progression affecting multiple tissues or organs; (4) considerable phenotypic variation within a disease.
maple bark disease hypersensitivity pneumonitis
in logging and sawmill workers due to inhalation of spores of a mold, Cryptostroma corticale,
growing under the maple bark.
maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) a hereditary enzyme defect in metabolism of branched chain amino acids, marked clinically by mental and physical retardation, severe ketoacidosis, feeding difficulties, and a characteristic maple syrup odor in the urine and on the body.
Marburg virus disease a severe, often fatal, viral hemorrhagic fever first reported in Marburg, Germany, among laboratory workers exposed to African green monkeys.
Meniere's disease deafness, tinnitus, and dizziness, in association with nonsuppurative disease of the labyrinth.
metabolic disease one caused by a disruption of a normal metabolic pathway because of a genetically determined enzyme defect.
Meyer's disease adenoid vegetations of the pharynx.
Mikulicz's disease benign, self-limited lymphocytic infiltration and enlargement of the lacrimal and salivary glands of uncertain etiology.
Milroy disease hereditary permanent lymphedema of the legs due to lymphatic obstruction.
Minamata disease a severe neurologic disorder due to alkyl mercury poisoning, with permanent neurologic and mental disabilities or death; once prevalent among those eating contaminated seafood from Minamata Bay, Japan.
minimal change disease subtle alterations in kidney function demonstrable by clinical albuminuria and the presence of lipid droplets in cells of the proximal tubules, seen primarily in young children.
mixed connective tissue disease a combination of scleroderma, myositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, and marked serologically by the presence of antibody against extractable nuclear antigen.
molecular disease any disease in which the pathogenesis can be traced to a single molecule, usually a protein, which is either abnormal in structure or present in reduced amounts.
Mondor's disease phlebitis affecting the large subcutaneous veins normally crossing the lateral chest wall and breast from the epigastric or hypochondriac region to the axilla.
, Morquio-Ullrich disease
see under syndrome.
motor neuron disease , motor system disease any disease of a motor neuron, including spinal muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar paralysis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and lateral sclerosis.
Newcastle disease a viral disease of birds, including domestic fowl, transmissible to humans, characterized by respiratory, gastrointestinal or pulmonary, and encephalitic symptoms.
Niemann's disease , Niemann-Pick disease a lysosomal storage disease due to sphingomyelin accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system; there are five types distinguished by age of onset, amount of central nervous system involvement, and degree of enzyme deficiency.
Norrie's disease an X-linked disorder consisting of bilateral blindness from retinal malformation, mental retardation, and deafness.
notifiable disease one required to be reported to federal, state, or local health officials when diagnosed, because of infectiousness, severity, or frequency of occurrence.
obstructive small airways disease chronic bronchitis with irreversible narrowing of the bronchioles and small bronchi with hypoxia and often hypercapnia.
occupational disease disease due to various factors involved in one's employment.
Oguchi's disease a form of hereditary night blindness and fundus discoloration following light adaptation.
organic disease one associated with demonstrable change in a bodily organ or tissue.
Osgood-Schlatter disease osteochondrosis of the tuberosity of the tibia.
2. (of breast) an intraductal inflammatory carcinoma of the breast, involving the areola and nipple.
3. an extramammary counterpart of Paget's disease (2), usually involving the vulva, and sometimes other sites, as the perianal and axillary regions.
a slowly progressive form of parkinsonism
, usually seen late in life, marked by masklike facies, tremor of resting muscles, slowing of voluntary movements, festinating gait, peculiar posture, muscular weakness, and sometimes excessive sweating and feelings of heat.
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease a progressive familial form of leukoencephalopathy, marked by nystagmus, ataxia, tremor, parkinsonian facies, dysarthria, and mental deterioration.
Pellegrini's disease , Pellegrini-Stieda disease calcification of the medial collateral ligament of the knee due to trauma.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) any pelvic infection involving the upper female genital tract beyond the cervix.
periodontal disease any disease or disorder of the periodontium.
Perthes' disease osteochondrosis of capitular femoral epiphysis.
induration of the corpora cavernosa
of the penis, producing a painful fibrous chordee
and penile curvature.
1. progressive atrophy of the cerebral convolutions in a limited area (lobe) of the brain, with clinical manifestations and course similar to Alzheimer's disease.
polycystic kidney disease , polycystic disease of kidneys either of two unrelated heritable disorders marked by cysts in both kidneys: the autosomal dominant or adult form is more common, appears in adult life, and is marked by loss of renal function that can be either rapid or slow; the autosomal recessive or infantile form is more rare, may be congenital or may appear later in childhood, and almost always progresses to renal failure.
primary electrical disease serious ventricular tachycardia, and sometimes ventricular fibrillation, in the absence of recognizable structural heart disease.
any of a group of fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, which may be sporadic, familial, or acquired, caused by abnormalities of prion protein
metabolism resulting from mutations in the prion protein
gene or from infection with pathogenic forms of the protein.
Raynaud's disease a primary or idiopathic vascular disorder, most often affecting women, marked by bilateral attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon.
Refsum's disease an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism, characterized by accumulation of phytanic acid, chronic polyneuritis, retinitis pigmentosa, cerebellar ataxia, and persistent elevation of protein in cerebrospinal fluid.
reversible obstructive airway disease
a condition characterized by bronchospasm
reversible by intervention, as in asthma
rheumatic heart disease the most important manifestation and sequel to rheumatic fever, consisting chiefly of valvular deformities.
rheumatoid disease a systemic condition best known by its articular involvement (rheumatoid arthritis) but emphasizing nonarticular changes, e.g., pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, pleural effusion, and lung nodules.
Roger's disease a ventricular septal defect; the term is usually restricted to small, asymptomatic defects.
runt disease a graft-versus-host disease produced by immunologically competent cells in a foreign host that is unable to reject them, resulting in gross retardation of host development and in death.
Salla disease an inherited disorder of sialic acid metabolism characterized by accumulation of sialic acid in lysosomes and excretion in the urine, mental retardation, delayed motor development, and ataxia.
Sandhoff's disease a type of GM2 gangliosidosis resembling Tay-Sachs disease, seen in non-Jews, marked by a progressively more rapid course, and due to a defect in hexosaminidase, both isozymes A and B.
Schamberg's disease a slowly progressive purpuric and pigmentary disease of the skin affecting chiefly the shins, ankles, and dorsa of the feet.
subacute or chronic leukoencephalopathy in children and adolescents, similar to adrenoleukodystrophy
; massive destruction of the white substance of the cerebral hemispheres leads to blindness, deafness, bilateral spasticity, and mental deterioration.
see under purpura.
1. one subsequent to or as a consequence of another disease.
2. one due to introduction of incompatible, immunologically competent cells into a host rendered incapable of rejecting them by heavy exposure to ionizing radiation.
self-limited disease one that runs a limited and definite course.
sexually transmitted disease venereal disease
; any of a diverse group of infections transmitted by sexual contact; in some this is the only important mode of transmission, and in others transmission by nonsexual means is possible.
sickle cell disease any disease associated with the presence of hemoglobin S.
small airways disease
chronic obstructive bronchitis with irreversible narrowing of the bronchioles and small bronchi. See also obstructive small airways d.
storage disease a metabolic disorder in which a specific substance (a lipid, a protein, etc.) accumulates in certain cells in unusually large amounts.
storage pool disease a blood coagulation disorder due to failure of the platelets to release adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in response to aggregating agents; characterized by mild bleeding episodes, prolonged bleeding time, and reduced aggregation response to collagen or thrombin.
1. hereditary lateral sclerosis with the spasticity mainly limited to the legs.
, Swift-Feer disease acrodynia
Tangier disease a familial disorder characterized by a deficiency of high-density lipoproteins in the blood serum, with storage of cholesteryl esters in tissues.
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) the most common GM2 gangliosidosis, seen almost exclusively in northeastern European Jews, characterized by infantile onset, doll-like facies, cherry-red macular spot, early blindness, hyperacusis, macrocephaly, seizures, hypotonia, and death in early childhood.
thyrotoxic heart disease heart disease associated with hyperthyroidism, marked by atrial fibrillation, cardiac enlargement, and congestive heart failure.
transmissible neurodegenerative disease prion d.
venoocclusive disease of the liver symptomatic occlusion of the small hepatic venules caused by ingestion of Senecio tea or related substances, by certain chemotherapy agents, or by radiation.
vinyl chloride disease acro-osteolysis resulting from exposure to vinyl chloride, characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon and skin and bony changes on the limbs.
the juvenile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
with onset between ages 5 and 10 years; characterized by rapid cerebroretinal degeneration, excessive neuronal storage of lipofuscin, and death within 10 to15 years.
Volkmann's disease congenital deformity of the foot due to tibiotarsal dislocation.
von Hippel's disease
hemangiomatosis confined principally to the retina; when associated with hemangioblastoma of the cerebellum, it is known as von Hippel-Lindau d.
von Hippel-Lindau disease a hereditary condition marked by hemangiomas of the retina and hemangioblastomas of the cerebellum, sometimes with similar lesions of the spinal cord and cysts of the viscera; there may be neurologic symptoms such as seizures and mental retardation.
von Willebrand's disease
an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of von Willebrand's factor
, and often impairment of adhesion of platelets on glass beads, associated with epistaxis and increased bleeding after trauma or surgery, menorrhagia, and postpartum bleeding.
Waldenström's disease osteochondrosis of the capitular femoral epiphysis.
Whipple's disease a malabsorption syndrome marked by diarrhea, steatorrhea, skin pigmentation, arthralgia and arthritis, lymphadenopathy, central nervous system lesions, and infiltration of the intestinal mucosa with macrophages containing PAS-positive material.
Wilson's disease an inherited, progressive disorder of copper metabolism, with accumulation of copper in liver, brain, kidney, cornea, and other tissues; it is characterized by cirrhosis in the liver, degenerative changes in the brain, and a pigmented ring at the outer margin of the cornea.
Wolman's disease a lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of the lysosomal sterol esterase, occurring in infants, and associated with hepatosplenomegaly, adrenal steatorrhea, calcification, abdominal distention, anemia, and inanition.
n a definite deviation from the normal state characterized by a series of symptoms. Disease may be caused by developmental disturbances, genetic factors, metabolic factors, living agents, or physical, chemical, or radiant energy, or the cause may be unknown.
n.pr a disease characterized by a slow and perhaps irregular pulse, vertigo, syncope, occasional pseudoepileptic convulsions, and Cheyne-Stokes respirations.
the metabolic disorders occurring as a result of adaptation or resistance to severe physical or psychologic stress. See also syndrome, general adaptation
n.pr a chronic adrenocortical insufficiency caused by bilateral tuberculosis, aplasia, atrophy, or degeneration of the adrenal glands. Symptoms include severe weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, digestive disturbances, hypoglycemia, lowered resistance to infection, and abnormal pigmentation (bronze color of the skin, with associated melanotic pigmentation of the oral mucosa, especially of the gingival tissues).
n the disorders of adrenocortical function, giving rise to Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, adrenogenital syndrome, and primary aldosteronism.
n See disease, autoimmune.
(autoallergic disease, autoimmunization syndrome, chronic hypersensitivity),
n a disease that is believed to be caused in part by reactions of hypersensitivity of the host tissue (antigens). Includes various hemolytic anemias, idiopathic thrombocytopenias, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, scleroderma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Sjögren's syndrome.
n a disease affecting the hematologic system (e.g., anemia, leukemia, agranulocytosis purpura, infectious mononucleosis). Such a disease often results in lesions of the oral structures, particularly the mucosal surfaces.
n.pr See lymphoblastoma, giant follicular.
n a disease affecting the heart.
a granulomatous disease caused by B. henselae
that occurs at the site of a scratch or bite of a house cat. Local lesions occur at the site of injury with a regional adenitis that is out of proportion to the primary lesion occurring within 1 to 3 weeks. Systemic symptoms of infection may occur. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic tests.
disease, chronic hypersensitivity
n See disease, autoimmune.
disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary
n a disease marked by decreased expiratory flow rates resulting in increased total lung capacity. Patients with this condition are prone to acute respiratory failure from infections or general anesthesia.
(group disease, visceral angiitis)
n a group of diseases affecting the collagenous connective tissue of several organs and systems. These diseases have similar biochemical structural alterations and include rheumatic fever, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, periarteritis, and serum sickness.
n a disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly to a well person or animal from an infected person or animal. A disease with the capacity for maintenance by natural modes of spread (e.g., by contact, by airborne routes, through drinking water or food, by arthropod vectors).
n a disease present at birth, or, more specifically, one that is acquired in utero.
n.pr hypercortisolism that results from an adrenal or pituitary neoplasm. The term
Cushing's syndrome refers to hypercortisolism that is not related to an endogenous process.
disease, cytomegalic inclusion, generalized
n See disease, salivary gland.
n.pr an apparently genetic dermatologic disease that also involves mucous membranes. The oral lesions are whitish papules of the gingiva, tongue, or palate. It is characterized histologically by the presence of corps ronds.
n a disturbance produced by lack of nutritional or metabolic factors. Used mainly in reference to avitaminosis.
disease, degenerative joint
n a disease affecting the skin; often accompanied by pathologic manifestations of various mucosal surfaces (e.g., the oral mucosa, genital mucosa, conjunctiva).
n the last phase of an illness, at which point the patient's life is gravely endangered.
n a group of diseases caused by a number of viruses but having as a prominent feature a skin rash (e.g., smallpox, chickenpox, cowpox, measles, rubella).
n a disease occurring in several members of the same family. Often used to mean members of the same generation and occasionally used synonymously with hereditary disease.
n a hereditary defect of most of the exocrine glands in the body, including the salivary glands. The secretion of the affected mucous glands is abnormally viscous.
n a viral infection caused by the human parvovirus B19; spread via the upper respiratory tract, this virus impacts on children more strongly than adults. Also called
n a disease that has no observable or demonstrable cause.
n.pr a constitutional defect in the metabolism of the cerebroside kerasin. This glycoprotein accumulates in the reticuloendothelial system and leads to splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymph node enlargement, and bone defects.
n a potentially deadly condition resulting from allogenically transplanted hematopoietic cells that reject host cells in the transplant recipient. In early stages, this condition may result in lichenoid and erosive lesions on the oral mucosa.
(aphthous fever, epidemic stomatitis, epizootic stomatitis)
primarily a disease of animals caused by a filterable virus that may be transmitted to humans and that occasionally produces symptoms. The human form is characterized by fever, nausea, vomiting, malaise, and ulcerative stomatitis. Skin lesions consisting of vesicles may appear, usually on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Spontaneous regression usually occurs within 2 weeks.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease.
disease, Hand-Schūller-Christian (chronic disseminated histiocytosis X),
n.pr a type of cholesterol lipoidosis characterized clinically by defects in membranous bones, exophthalmos, and diabetes insipidus.
n an abnormal condition of the heart (organic, mechanical, or functional) that causes difficulty.
disease, heart, arteriosclerotic
n a variety of functional changes of the myocardium that result from arteriosclerosis.
disease, heart, congenital
n a defective formation of the heart or of the major vessels of the heart.
disease, heart, ischemic
n a heart condition in which an inadequate supply of oxygenated blood reaches the heart, resulting in damage to the heart muscle; it is usually caused by atherosclerosis, a buildup of fatty plaque deposits in the main coronary arteries that leads to narrowing or hardening of the arteries. Symptoms include chest pain or discomfort (angina pectoris), ventricular fibrillation, heart attack (myocardial infarction), or sudden death. Also known as
coronary artery disease and
coronary heart disease.
disease, heart, rheumatic
n a scarring of the endocardium resulting from involvement in acute rheumatic fever. The process most often involves the mitral valve.
disease, heart, thyrotoxic
n cardiac failure occurring as the result of hyperthyroidism or its superimposition on existing organic heart disease. Thyrotoxicosis is an important cause of auricular fibrillation.
disease, hemoglobin C
n a disease resulting from an abnormal hemoglobin (hemoglobin C); occurs primarily in African Americans and causes a mild normochromic anemia, target cells, and vague, intermittent arthralgia.
disease, hemolytic, of newborn
n a hemolysis caused by isoimmune reactions associated with Rh incompatibility or with blood transfusions in which there is an incompatibility of the ABO blood system. Several forms of the disease occur: erythroblastosis fetalis, congenital hemolytic disease, icterus gravis neonatorum, and hydrops fetalis.
n a hemophilic states (conditions) that clinically resemble hemophilia (e.g., parahemophila, hemophilia B [Christmas disease]).
disease, hemorrhagic, of newborn
n a hemorrhagic tendency in newborn infants occurring usually on the third or fourth day of life; believed to be caused by defects of prothrombin and factor VII, resulting from a deficiency of vitamin K.
n a disease transmitted from parent to offspring through genes. Three main types of mendelian heredity are recognized: dominant, recessive, and sex-linked.
n See disease, autoimmune.
n a disease arising as a result of the actions or words of a health care professional.
n a disease in which the etiology is not recognized or determined.
n the pathologic alterations induced in the tissues by the action of microorganisms and/or their toxins. Some infectious diseases involving the oral tissues are herpes zoster, herpetic gingivostomatitis, moniliasis, syphilis, and tuberculosis.
disease, inflammatory neoplastic
disease, Langerhans cell
(Langerhans cell histiocytosis),
a group of three diseases identified by an abundance of Langerhans cells–eosinophils combined with histiocytic cells. See also disease, Letterer-Siwe; disease, Hand-Schūller-Christian; and granuloma, eosinophili
n.pr (acute disseminated histiocytosis X, nonlipid histiocytosis, nonlipid reticuloendotheliosis), a fatal febrile disease of unknown cause occurring in infants and children; characterized by focal granulomatous lesions of the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Results in enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver, defects of the flat and long bones, anemia, and sometimes purpura.
disease, lipoid storage
(lipoidosis, reticuloendothelial granuloma)
(lip´oid ritik´yəlōen´dōthē´lēəl gran´yəlō´mə lipoidō´sis),
n group of diseases in which lipid substances accumulate in the fixed cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Included are Gaucher's disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and the Hand-Schūller-Christian disease complex. Other storage diseases include lipochondrodystrophy (gargoylism) and cerebral sphingolipidosis.
n a disease of the large blood vessels, including the aorta, and coronary arteries. Fatty plaque buildup and thrombosis formation in these vessels may lead to a myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and circulation problems in the limbs. It is often a complication of long-term diabetes.
disease, metabolic bone
n.pl the diseases of the bone which may be attributed to cellular changes or to nutritional deficiencies/excesses brought on by dietary imbalances. These include hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, and the many diseases associated with an abnormal abundance of Langerhans cells.
n.pr a benign hyperplasia of the lymph nodes of the parotid or other salivary glands and/or the lacrimal glands.
n a disease associated with genetically determined abnormalities of protein synthesis at the molecular level.
n the pathologic muscle tissue changes that can lead to disease. Such changes reveal few structural alterations, and the highly differentiated contents of muscle fibers tend to react as a whole. The pathologic features that distinguish one muscle disease from another are the age and character of changes within a muscle, distribution of those changes within one or several muscles, presence of inflammatory cells and parasites, and coexistence of pathologic changes in other organs. Muscles undergo a number of degenerative changes. There are alterations in the striation in certain pathologic states caused by cloudy swelling, granular degeneration, waxy or hyaline degeneration, and other cellular modifications such as multiplication of the sarcolemmic nuclei and phagocytosis of muscle fibers.
n a condition in which various areas of the central nervous system are affected; results in dysfunction or degeneration of the musculature and disabilities of the organ.
n.pr a congenital, familial disorder occurring mainly in Jewish female infants that terminates fatally before the third year and is characterized by the accumulation of the phospholipid sphingomyelin in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system.
disease, oral, hereditary
n the heritable defects of oral and paraoral structures (excluding the dentition) without generalized defects; includes ankyloglossia, hereditary gingivofibromatosis, and possibly cleft lip and cleft palate. Many oral and paraoral defects are associated with generalized defects (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers, Franceschetti, Ehlers-Danlos, Pierre Robin, and Sturge-Weber syndromes; hemorrhagic telangiectasia; Crouzon's disease; sickle cell disease; acatalasemia; white spongy nevus; xeroderma pigmentosum; gargoylism; neurofibromatosis; familial amyloidosis; and achondroplasia).
disease, oral manifestations of systemic
n the lesions in association with systemic disease, often influenced by the local environmental factors within the oral cavity.
n a disease in which actual structural changes have occurred in the organs or tissues.
disease, Paget's, of bone
a bone disease characterized by thickening and bowing of the long bones and enlargement of the skull and maxillae. It is represented radiographically by a cotton-wool appearance of the bone and microscopically by a mosaic bone pattern with so-called reversal lines. Hypercementosis and loosening of the teeth may be significant manifestations. Increased serum alkaline phosphatase may be an early finding.
Paget's disease of the bone.
n.pr a progressive neurologic disorder for which there is no known cure that is thought to be the result of neuron degeneration in the section of the brain controlling spontaneous movement and balance. The disease causes postural changes, tremors, muscle rigidity, and weakness. Oral manifestations include difficulty in swallowing and excess salivation.
n a disturbance of the periodontium. Diseases affecting the periodontium include aggressive and necrotizing types, as well as gingivitis. Etiologic factors may be local or systemic or may involve an interplay between the two. Periodontal diseases may be involved in increasing the risk and course of systemic diseases.
disease, periodontal, etiologic factors of
n.pl the local and systemic factors, singly or in combination, that initiate periodontal lesions.
disease, periodontal, local factors of
n.pl the environmental conditions within the oral cavity that initiate, enable, or alter the course of diseases of the periodontium (e.g., calculus, diastemata between teeth, food impaction, prematurities in the centric path of closure, and tongue habits).
disease, peripheral vascular
n a disease of arteries, veins, and/or lymphatic vessels.
n.pr a spinal curvature (kyphosis) resulting from tuberculosis.
n the course of the disease within a patient/host from onset to resolution.
a disease that appears to have been precipitated or prolonged by emotional stress; manifested largely through the autonomic nervous system. Various conditions may be included (e.g., certain forms of asthma, dermatosis, migraine headache, and hypertension). See also disorder
, psychophysiologic, autonomic
, and visceral.
disease, Rendu-Osler-Weber (ron´doo)
n a disease caused by microorganisms of the order Rickettsiales (e.g., Rocky Mountain spotted fever, rickettsialpox, typhus, and Q fever).
(rē´gə-fā´də), an ulceration of the lingual frenum of infants caused by abrasion by natal or neonatal teeth.
disease, salivary gland
(generalized cytomegalic inclusion),
n a generalized infection in infants caused by intrauterine or postnatal infection with a cytomegalovirus of the group of herpesviruses. Manifestations include jaundice, purpura, hemolytic anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, chronic eczema, and failure to gain weight.
n a hereditary disorder transmitted by the gene that also determines sex (e.g., hemophilia).
disease, sickle cell
a hematologic disorder caused by the presence of an abnormal hemoglobin (hemoglobin S) that permits the formation or results in the formation of sickle-shaped red blood cells. Two forms of the disease occur: sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia. See also anemia, sickle cell
; trait, sickle cell
(pituitary cachexia, hypophyseal cachexia, hypopituitary cachexia),
n.pr a panhypopituitarism resulting from destruction of the pituitary gland, usually from hemorrhage or infarction.
n the degree to which a patient or host is vulnerable to a disease.
n a disease involving the whole body.
n.pr a form of rare progressive oral gangrene occurring in childhood and seen only in Japan. Apparently related to a congenital lack of the enzyme catalase (acatalasemia). Characterized by a mild to severe form of a peculiar type of oral gangrene that may develop at the roots of the teeth or the tonsils. Loss of teeth occurs, with necrosis of the alveolar bone. Patients become symptom free after puberty.
n a disease capable of being transmitted from one individual to another; a disease capable of being maintained in successive passages through a susceptible host, usually under experimental conditions such as by injection. See also disease, communicable.
n the method by which a disease is passed from one patient or host to another. The three most common methods of transmission are direct contact, aerosols, and vectors, such as insects.
n.pl the intermediary hosts that carry the disease from one species to another, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and rabid animals.
disease, von Recklinghausen's
disease, von Recklinghausen's, of bone disease, von Recklinghausen's, of skin
disease, von Willebrand's
n.pr an inherited blood coagulation disorder attributed to a deficiency or malfunction of factor VIII. It may cause prolonged or excessive gingival bleeding.
n.pr an acute febrile disease caused by
Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae or
L. canicola. Manifestations include fever, petechial hemorrhage, myalgia, renal insufficiency, hepatic failure, and jaundice.
n the diseases that have in common a loss of myelin sheath, with preservation of the axis cylinders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Schilder's disease).
diseases, dental, hereditary
n.pl the heritable defects of the dentition without generalized disease, which include amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, dentinal dysplasia, localized and generalized hypoplasia of enamel, peg-shaped lateral incisors, familial dentigerous cysts, missing teeth, giantism, and fused primary mandibular incisors. Dental defects occurring with generalized disease include dentinogenesis imperfecta with osteogenesis imperfecta, missing teeth with ectodermal dysplasia, enamel hypoplasia with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica, retarded eruption with cleidocranial dysostosis, missing lateral incisors with ptosis of the eyelids, missing premolars with premature whitening of the hair, and enamel hypoplasia in vitamin D resistant rickets.
n See disease, collagen.