RNA silencing-based approaches, especially the long hpRNA technology, has been successfully used to engineer plant resistance against viruses, including agronomically important potyviruses, such as Wheat streak mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, and Plum pox virus [44, 45].
A recent global survey shows that the average price of pure biochar is approximately AU$3 [kg.sup.-1] (Jirka and Tomlinson 2014), which is agronomically not affordable based on suggested high application rates (5-20 t [ha.sup.-1]) and the expected benefits in crop yield.
In the 1950s, the US built an extensive system of irrigation canals that turned large tracts of the Southern Helmand desert into a flourishing agrarian economy, attracting migrant populations and tying them into agronomically stable communities.
Mr Kendal said: "The launch of the Campaign for the Farmed Environment in 2009, which the report strangely fails to acknowledge as well as the good work farmers are doing as part of the scheme, has had a real impact in helping farmers and growers decide how they might best retain and increase the environmental benefits provided by their farmland in a targeted and agronomically sensible way.
These studies are very important to identify genetically diverse, agronomically superior accessions for the improvement of mustard as a crop and also to enable gene banks to unambiguously characterize and avoid confusions arising out of duplications and mishandling.
These data suggest that there may be an environmental consequence of producing pasture at the agronomically optimum STP concentrations and this consequence must be considered when planning future water quality targets in catchments where agriculture is important.
So far, the weaknesses of the current food-production system have been compensated for agronomically through greater and greater inputs of fossil fuels and other resources, but those efforts have only worsened the ecological impact.