Currently, there are at least four approaches to transforming and inducing transient expression in plants: (1) delivery of "naked" DNA by particle bombardment , (2) infection with modified viral vectors [6, 10, 11], (3) agroinfiltration of plant tissues with Agrobacteria
[10,12], and (4) polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) mediated gene transfer and electroporation of protoplasts .
This recalcitrance is related to two different aspects: a) the low in vitro response (CARVALHO et al., 1997; FRAME et al., 2006; GONZALES et al., 2012; GRANDO et al., 2013) e b) low explant sensibility to agrobacteria
infection (VENNA et al., 2003; CARVALHO et al., 2004; WANG et al., 2007), thus restricting the number of transformed maize genotypes (GONZALEZ et al., 2012; OMBORI et al., 2014).
is a natural mechanism however, maize is not a natural host for Agrobacterium (Jackson et al., 2013).
are natural plant parasites and their natural ability to transfer genes provides another method for the development of genetically engineered plants.
The PLBs were then sieved on a sterile metal sieve and blot-dried on a sterile filter paper to remove excess unattached Agrobacteria
is a plant pest," he said of the pathogen biologists often use in genetic engineering work, noting that it can transfer DNA between itself and other organisms.
We found that 4 min infiltration at 0.5 mbar is sufficient for the transfer of Agrobacteria
into tobacco leaves.
This task is performed by tiny helpers called agrobacteria
, which genetic engineers have been using for over twenty years.
The opines, formed by genes in the T-DNA transferred, are then secreted from the plant cell and act as chemoattractants for agrobacteria
. They serve as C and N sources for the bacterium attached to the plant cell, as well as for the surrounding aggregates of bacteria, by means of catabolic genes remaining in the bacterial plasmids (Kim & Farrand, 1996, 1998; Kim et al., 1996).
These explants were also suitable for making incisions for infection with agrobacteria
during genetic transformation (unpublished data).