Glynn et al., "Prospective cohort study of antioxidant vitamin supplement use and the risk of age-related maculopathy
," American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.
Genetic risk of age-related maculopathy
: Population-based familial aggregation study.
A pooled case-control study of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene in age-related maculopathy
. Ophthalmic Genetics, 23(4), 209-223.
Location of lesions associated with age-related maculopathy
over a 10-year period: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.
The presence of ARMD was determined using fundus photographs taken by a digital nonmydriatic fundus camera (TRC-NW6S, Topcon) and graded using the grading protocol of the International Age-related Maculopathy
Epidemiological Study Group .
Patients with diagnosed choroidal and retinal neovascularisation such as PDR, diabetic macular oedema, central retinal vein occlusion, neovascular glaucoma myopic maculopathy, and age-related maculopathy
(wet type) were included in the study.
The Beaver Dam Eye Study, based in Wisconsin, provided epidemiologic evidence of a significant relationship between extended exposure to the sun and the incidence of early age-related maculopathy
(ARM), while a study of watermen in Chesapeake Bay found an increased incidence of severe AMD among those exposed to higher levels of blue and visible light over the previous 20 years.
Carotenoids in age-related maculopathy
Italian study (CARIS): two-year results of a randomized study.
The goal of the Study on the Genetics of Age-Related Maculopathy
(GARM II) is to determine how the combination of genetic, dietary, health, and exposure factors such as sunlight or smoking contributes to a person's risk of developing this condition.
If supplementation does help prevent or delay AMD, it is likely a small benefit, with confidence intervals compatible with a protective effect not exceeding 10% for preventing age-related maculopathy
(ARM) and 25% for preventing AMD (i.e., advanced ARM).
The association with hearing loss also was found in two subgroups of patients who had cataracts or age-related maculopathy
, the two leading causes of visual impairment in this population.
Relationship between refraction and prevalant as well as incident age-related maculopathy
: The Rotterdam Study.