The breeding system was determined using Lloyd and Schoen's (1992) self-compatibility index ([SCI.sub.f]), autofertility index ([AFI.sub.f]) and, Ramirez and Brito's (1990) index of agamospermy
The female flowers did not produce fruit by agamospermy
. The fruits that set naturally (control) produced 1-10 seeds per fruit.
A total of five different crosses were performed to detect (AG) agamospermy
, (SP) manual selfing, (SS) spontaneous selfing (SS), cross pollination (CP), and (NP) natural pollination.
and female gametes), apomixis is agamospermy
(asexual seed development
(AP): buds of both morphs were selected and emasculated; then enclosed in a pollination bag to test for apomixis.
The cost of meiosis applies to asexual reproduction via embryos in cosexes (parthenogenesis in animals, agamospermy
in seed plants), and to open flower (chasmogamous) self-fertilization in plants.
Agamic complexes, resulting from the combination of agamospermy
and hybridization, characteristically have intricate genetic relationships between the original parental species and the derived apomictic forms (Grant, 1981).