Effects of Shenmai injection on afterdepolarization
and triggered activities in left ventricular papillary muscle in rat cardiac: Hypertrophy.
Weiss, "Multiscale Determinants of Delayed Afterdepolarization
Amplitude in Cardiac Tissue," Biophysical Journal, vol.
Another research aimed to investigate the combined role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and [beta]-adrenergic signaling pathway in regulating early afterdepolarization
. Early afterdepolarization
(EAD) has tremendous relevance for the onset of arrhythmogenesis.
This increases the risk of early afterdepolarization
, which, in turn, can cause polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
[sup], Due to a marked difference in AP duration and the property of the delayed dome similar to early afterdepolarization
, [sup] the dome may produce a new AP in the areas where complete loss of epicardial AP is present, leading to formation of short-coupled ectopic beats, which can be capable of originating polymorphic VT or VF.
reported that perfusion of [Ca.sup.2+] and [Ca.sup.2+] complexes in animal hearts could not induce similar myocardial injury to MIRI, especially early afterdepolarization
Abbreviations AP: Action potential APD: Action potential duration CM: Cardiomyocyte EB: Embryoid body EAD: Early afterdepolarization
ECG: Electrocardiogram hESC: Human embryonic stem cell hiPSC: Human-induced pluripotent stem cell ICD: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator miPSC: Murine-induced pluripotent stem cells LQT(S): Long QT (syndrome) QT-Interval: Time between start and end of cardiac ventricular electrical depolarization.
Increased vagal tone is associated with a shortened atrial effective refractory period and increased dispersion [3,17], whereas sympathetic stimulation may lead to afterdepolarization
and triggered firing , which facilitate the initiation and maintenance of
Ventricular hypertrophy amplifies transmural repolarization dispersion and induces early afterdepolarization
. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001; 281: H 1968-75.
Ni ions have been reported to induce vasoconstriction and early afterdepolarization
in isolated rat heart and canine coronary artery by enhancing [Ca.sup.2+] influx into vascular smooth muscle cells (Golovko et al.
reaching a critical threshold can trigger clinical arrhythmias, including ventricular extrasystoles, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia, and VF .
On the contrary, other studies reported that [beta]-adrenergic agonists activate protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates [I.sub.CaL], RyR, PLB, SERCA, and [I.sub.Ks], resulting in delayed afterdepolarization