programs were traditionally created to help avoid discrimination against women and minority applicants at educational institutions, like colleges, and in hiring for jobs.
policies act like a pair of corrective lenses for decision makers with a long history of race-based stereotyping.
In addition to its failure to reach disadvantaged Black and Latino students, Cashin argues that race-based affirmative action
poses too high a social cost because "it engenders [racial] resentment," particularly among working-class Whites.
The affirmative action
society, if allowed to continue, could lead the country further down the road to fragmentation and schism.
Voters in several states, including California and Michigan, have used referendums to outlaw affirmative action
in admissions at public universities and in public hiring.
The rise of the diversity rationale for affirmative action
has not been costless, but it has ensured that appreciable numbers of racial minorities are in strategic positions, while dampening certain side effects that attend any regime of racial selectivity.
Many use the terms diversity and affirmative action
interchangeably, however, these terms are not equal.
Yuill relies heavily on archival sources to help fill out the record on Nixon's role in the expansion of affirmative action
. This represents one of the major strengths of the book.
While many proponents of affirmative action
have made the argument that the existing hiring and tenure standards at universities are already subjective and distorted by "the prejudices and cultural assumptions of the white males who have defined these standards for many years," or whether "those hired according to prevailing standards really are best qualified in the true sense," (11) they have failed to note the lack of existence of standards prior to the institutionalization of affirmative action
in the university.
The goal of affirmative action
was to bring diversity to the upper echelons of society with the belief that those at the top could then turn and help others achieve their goals.
First, arguments against affirmative action
are defended in terms of the principles of justice, equality and fairness, while affirmative action
is portrayed as 'reverse discrimination' (Pincus 2001) or 'reverse apartheid' (Wambugu 2005).
When affirmative action
was banned in California in 1996, admission rates among black freshmen to the University of California at Berkeley, Los Angeles, and San Diego plummeted.