The present study deals with the bioactivity assessment of 5,11,17,28-tetrakismorpholinomethyl-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalixarene (3) against a variety of microorganisms including Gram Positive; Staphylococcus albus ATCC 10231, Streptococcus viridans ATCC 12392, Gram Negative: Bacillus procynous ATCC 51189, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Klebsiella aerogenous
ATCC 10031, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Sallmonella ATCC 6017 and Fungi: Aspergillus Niger ATCC 16404, Aspergillus fumagatus ATCC 90906, Penicillium ATCC 32333.
Tumor spread through alveolar spaces is frequently seen in lung resection specimens containing primary and metastatic tumors, and the concept that STAS is a form of aerogenous tumor spread rather than a histologic artifact is supported by several studies showing a significant correlation between STAS presence and decreased overall survival and/or increased risk of tumor recurrence in patients undergoing lung resections for primary lung adenocarcinomas.
The following search terms were used: "STAS," "tumor spread through air spaces", "intra-alveolar tumor spread," "displaced tumor," "air space invasion," "aerogenous tumor," "aerogenous spread," "tumor islands," and "free-floating tumor cells" in conjunction with "lung" and "pulmonary." The abstracts of all retrieved references were reviewed, and case reports, abstracts, and editorial articles were excluded from the study.
Spread through alveolar spaces (STAS)-an aerogenous invasion in pulmonary adenocarcinomas.
Air space invasion or aerogenous spread of tumor is a relatively new concept and has become increasingly important for pathologists to recognize.
(6) Owing to the unique lung anatomy with abundant air spaces surrounded by capillary network in the alveolar septa, lung tumor cells may undergo aerogenous spread without parenchymal destruction or subsequent stroma reaction such as desmoplasia or angiogenesis.
One of the main features is an aerogenous
pathway of transmission that is not specific to other anthropozoonoses [11, 23].
(12,13) In people, aerogenous dissemination is observed only in the lungs.
Intrapulmonary metastasis in resected pathologic stage IIIB nonsmall cell lung cancer: possible contribution of aerogenous metastasis to the favorable outcome.