Development--Root and Stem Base Porosity
Plants adapt to poorly aerated soils by developing air spaces (aerenchyma
) in roots that enhance oxygen movement from shoots to roots and increase the diffusion rate inside the root after oxygen has entered via the soil or through shoots (Huang, 1997).
There is evidence that the better yielding and higher Fe-precipitating cultivars possess better developed aerenchyma
gas transport passages in the roots.
The role of ethylene in the promotion of lysigeneous aerenchyma
. in cortical cells of rice (Oryza sativa L.), however, is apparently cultivar dependent.
The percentage of the cortex that comprised aerenchyma
was determined with projected drawings and the image analysis system.
Thus, ACC is volatilized to aerenchymas
of non-flooded root system at soil surface and reacted with oxygen promoting ethylene through ACC-oxidase.
percentage was not modified by Cd (see Table 4 and Figure 3).
formation and recovery from hypoxia of the flooded root system of nodulated soybeam.
Moreover, for endurance, plants developed their adaptive morphological traits, forming aerenchyma
cell for availability of oxygen to continue aerobic respiratory pathway in particular.
For example, aerenchyma
, air spaces in spongy tissue that let gases diffuse from the stem to the roots, is often formed in plants tolerant to waterlogging stress.
a biofilter process for anaerobically produced C[H.sub.4] before it leaves the sediment via aerenchyma
(Jeffery et al.
crenata were composed of epidermis, aerenchyma
, septa, inner cortex with parenchymatous cells, and vascular bundle (Figure 16).