In the human bladder, three [beta] adrenoreceptor
subtypes ([beta]1, [beta]2, and [beta]3) have been identified in the detrusor muscle and urothelium.
Kapspargo Sprinkle, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, novel, patented formulation of metoprolol succinate, is claimed to be the first and only extended-release sprinkle formulation of this beta1-selective adrenoreceptor
blocking agent (beta-blocker).
 Consequently, esmolol (cardio-selective beta-1 adrenergic blocker) and dexmedetomidine (alpha-2 adrenoreceptor
agonist) are being investigated for their anti-adrenegic properties.
Genetic association between common beta-2 adrenoreceptor
polymorphism and asthma severity in school-age children.
Not long after, the presence of autoantibodies (a [gamma]-globulin) against the [beta]1 adrenoreceptor
in sera of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients was confirmed .
According to some authors, hemodynamic changes, with blood flow reduction, associated with adrenoreceptor
agonist administration exist [41,42].
A reasonable genetic explanation for hyperkalemia could be found in [beta.sub.1] and [beta.sub.2] adrenoreceptor
(ADRB1 and ADRB2) polymorphism, but data linking adverse effects of beta blockers to these genetic variants are still very rare and limited, not allowing any definite conclusion at this time(24).
Midodrine, an a1 adrenoreceptor
agonist, can act on the a1 adrenergic receptor, constricting the vessels, so as to lessen the symptoms of POTS.
Other authors underlined the role of [[beta].sub.3] adrenoreceptor
in mediating the effects of PE on the NO production; in particular, Calvert et al.
It was just incidental that some alfa one adrenoreceptor
blocker by the name Prazocin used for hypertension found out to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy so that was the discovery of Terazocin Alfuzasin Doxazosin and Tamsoline became available in the market.
 Alpha 2 adrenoreceptor
agonist are found to have antinociceptive action for both somatic and visceral pain [3,4] Clonidine is already established as adjuvant to Bupivacaine in regional anaesthesia.
It has been estimated that each year over 7 million veterinary patients use a-2 adrenoreceptor
agonist as part of their anesthetic protocol (Maze and Trangilli 1991).