Abbreviations FD: Functional dyspepsia 5-HT: 5-Hydroxytryptamine m-CPBG: m-Chlorophenylbiguanide CRF: Corticotropin-releasing factor TNBS: Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid HPA: Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal ACTH: Adrenocorticotrophic
hormone CMUS: Chronic mild unpredictable stimulation HCI: Hydrochloric acid TGR5: Bile acid receptor 1 nNOS: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase FSL: Flinders Sensitive Line WKY: Wistar Kyoto BB-DP: BioBreeding diabetes-prone.
Production of cortisol, androgens, and adrenocorticotrophic
hormone by the tumour.
Rheumatic fever is now believed to be a stress-related psychosomatic / organic disease, a "periodic imbalance of adrenocorticotrophic
functions involved not with bacteria or viruses, but with the individual's fundamental reactivity with the environment" (Goldberg & Latimer 2014: 76).
Previous studies (23,26,31) have reported that Qigong has the effect of relaxing subjects and decreasing their anxiety, which results in a decrease in cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic
hormone (ACTH) along with an increase in beta-endorphin.
In rats, maternal deprivation results in a significant decrease in plasma adrenocorticotrophic
hormone concentration and increase in plasma corticosterone compared to that in non-deprived rats (Suarez et al., 2001).
In addition it can lead to the production of multiple cytokines, including interlukin-1, endothelin-1, alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone ([alpha]-MSH), and adrenocorticotrophic
hormone (ACTH) from keratinocytes, which in turn upregulate melanocyte proliferation and melanogenesis.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone then stimulates the release of adrenocorticotrophic
hormone (ACTH; O'Connor et al., 2000).
Ultrasonography and hormone profiles of adrenocorticotrophic
Hormone (ACTH) induced persistent ovarian follicles (cyst) in cattle.
Subsequent bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sample (BIPSS) was performed for the localization diagnosis [Figure 1]d, which demonstrated adrenocorticotrophic
hormone (ACTH) level of inferior petrosal sinus and femoral vein at 0 min were 691.4 ng/L and 162.9 ng/L, at 5 min were 952.2 ng/L and 172.3 ng/L, respectively; GH level of inferior petrosal sinus and femoral vein at 0 min were 6.34 ng/ml and 3.88 ng/ml, at 5 min were 3.7 ng/ml and 2.38 ng/ml, respectively.
Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic
hormone, free thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone, testosterone, and prolactin levels were normal as well.
Cytokines increase levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotrophic
hormone, leading to a higher-than-normal cortisol concentration in depressed patients.(8)
Relationship to cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic
levels, Arch Int Med, 1981 a; 141:215-19