Ferreira et al., "Oxidation process of adrenaline in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes: formation of adrenochrome
, quinoproteins, and GSH adduct," Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol.
If we could decrease the formation of adrenochrome
, we would have a treatment for schizophrenia.
In the early 1950s it was shown that adrenochrome
- something like a hybrid of adrenaline and mescaline - could produce symptoms identical with those of schizophrenia.
However, because oxidation of dobutamine to adrenochrome
is rapid (complete within 5 min) under the Boehringer Mannheim reagent conditions, it is clear that reaction with 4-aminophenazone is not required for dobutamine to interfere in peroxidase-based tests.
Hoffer hypothesized that ascorbic acid's antioxidant activity also prevented the conversion of adrenaline to adrenochrome
. Experimentation revealed that many schizophrenics have a much higher need for ascorbic acid than the general population.
Post-operatively animal was given Sreptopenicillin 5.0gms intramuscularly and Meloxicam @ 0.5mg/kg body weight subcutaneously along with systemic haemostatic Adrenochrome
5.0 ml intramuscularly for 7 days.
The SOD-1 activity measurement was based on the inhibition of adrenaline oxidation to adrenochrome
in alkaline environment, which induced a change in the absorbance at 480 nm.
The reaction was initiated by the addition of epinephrine (0.025 M) and the inhibition of autocatalytic adrenochrome
formation rate was measured.
Unlike the dopamine hypothesis, the adrenochrome
hypothesis accounts for many biochemical patterns common among schizophrenic patients.
The assay procedure involves inhibition of epinephrine autoxidation in alkaline medium (pH 10.2) to adrenochrome
, in the presence of this enzyme.
I suggest that a bipolar patient who never has perceptual changes even in the manic phase differs from a schizophrenic in the oxidation of adrenalin to adrenochrome
. If there is excess adrenalin, this may be a causal factor for the manic state if the adrenalin is not converted into adrenochrome
Notably, excessive level of circulating catecholamines (and consequent saturation of the monoaminooxidase and catechol-o-methyl transferase systems) may cause the increased formation of adrenochrome
(obtained by oxidation of adrenaline) [40, 52] of 5,6-dihydroxy-1-methylindole and of adrenochrome
alkaline rearrangement product adrenolutin.