ACLS4 converts free long polyunsaturated [[omega].sup.6] fatty acids, like arachidonic acid (AA) and adrenic acid (AdA), into acyl-CoA esters.
Bayir et al., "Oxidized arachidonic and adrenic PEs navigate cells to ferroptosis," Nature Chemical Biology, vol.
The oxidation requires that PE contains polyunsaturated acyl chains like arachidonic acid (A) or adrenic acid (AdA).
Ultimately, 20 potential biomarkers and their trends were identified, such as LysoPC (18:3), LysoPC (16:1), PE (24:0/18:3), PI (18:0/0:0), PS (20:3/0:0), PC (15:0/0:0), methylimidazoleacetic acid, 2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid, N2-succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde, tetracosanoyl-CoA, adrenic acid, dodecanoic acid, leukotriene C5, 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (d18:1/16:0), SM (d18:0/20:2), acetylcholine, diacylglycerol, androstenedione, and prostaglandin H1.
Our research indicates that QGQS granule and captopril could inhibit occurrence and development of hypertension by downregulating expression of LysoPC, PS, CE, and leukotriene, while the difference between QGQS granule and captopril is the content of adrenic acid (known as docosatetraenoic acid), which is significantly more in QGQS group than in captopril group.
In contrast, adrenic
acid was the major compound of PUFAs present, ranging from 5.03%, 7.87% to 16.35%, in the flowers, twigs and leaves, respectively.
Taurine caused a 1.4-fold reduction in brain membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6, n-3) levels and a 1.7-fold reduction in adrenic
acid (22: 4, n-6) levels as compared to controls.
After verification of the homogeneity of variance and identification of outliers [two measurements of folic acid processed at 126, one baseline measurement of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), one baseline measurement of Mead acid (C20: 3n-9), and one measurement of adrenic acid (C22:4n-6), all excluded from analysis, we performed repeated-measures AMOVA to explore time effects over 96 h and to calculate the mean percentage change per time point.
Significant changes over time were observed for most FAs, but only for linoleic acid and adrenic acid were changes [greater than or equal to] 10%.
It was followed by arachidonic (C20:4n6, 0.30%), alpha-linolenic (C18:3n3, 0.10%), gamma-linolenic (C18:3n6, 0.09%), adrenic
(C22:4n6, 0.08%), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n3, 0.06%), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3, 0.04%), respectively.
The identification and quantification of fatty acid methyl esters was made possible by the use of an external standard mixture [oleic (C18:1n9), linoleic (C18:2n6), [gamma]-linolenic (C18:3n6), dihomo-[gamma]-linolenic (C20:3n6), arachidonic (C20:4n6), adrenic
(C22:4n6), cis-4,7,10,13,16-docosapentenoic (C22:5n6), linolenic (C18:3n3), cis5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n3), cis-7,10,13,16,19docosapentenoic (C22:5n3), and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19docosahexenoic (C22:6n3) methyl esters] supplied by Sigma.
However, the palmitic acid (C16:0) content was decreased, whereas the stearic acid (C18:0) and other PUFAs; gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3n6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3), adrenic
acid (C22:4n6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3), was increased in the DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-3% compared with the CON and DFM groups (p<0.05).