The most common clinically observed side effects of adrenergic bronchodilators are tremor, tachycardia, tolerance to bronchodilator effect, loss of bronchoprotection, nervousness, worsening ventilation to perfusion ratio, hypokalemia, and sensitivity to additives and propellants.
Commonly reported side effects of the adrenergic bronchodilators include headache, nervousness, irritability, anxiety, and insomnia, which are caused by central nervous system stimulation.
Adrenergic bronchodilators can increase blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as decrease serum potassium levels.
Long-acting beta-2 adrenergic bronchodilators are used as maintenance medications taken daily on a scheduled basis to prevent acute bronchospastic events.
Corticosteroids are often found in combination with long-acting beta-2 adrenergic bronchodilators in inhaler devices (see Table 1).
* Corticosteroid plus short-acting beta-2 adrenergic bronchodilator
The action of salmeterol in providing sustained protection from bronchoconstriction differs to a degree from that of the previously described adrenergic bronchodilators
. The difference in salmeterol's pharmacodynamics is reflected in its pharmacokinetics with a slower onset and time to peak effect and a longer duration of action compared with previous adrenergic agents.
I will also discuss the benefits anticholingergic bronchodilators have when used in combination with adrenergic bronchodilators
In the last two issues I had discussed the use of short and long acting adrenergic bronchodilators. I have not discussed in any detail however, a little something known as side effects.
The most common clinically observed side effects of adrenergic bronchodilators are tremor, tachycardia, tolerance to bronchodilator effect, loss of bron-choprotection, nervousness, worsening ventilation to perfusion ratio, hypokalemia, and sensitivity to additives and propellants.
Often, using an inhaled adrenergic bronchodilator
before exercise can prevent exercise-induced symptoms and allow people to be fully active.
The general indication for use of an adrenergic bronchodilator
is relaxation of airway smooth muscle in the presence of reversible airflow obstruction associated with acute and chronic asthma (including exercise-induced asthma), bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis, and other obstructive airway diseases.