Patients with signs of shock such as mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mmHg or lactic acidosis despite initial fluid resuscitation should be started on an adrenergic agent
. [12,14,15,17-19,22,24] In the SA setting, adrenaline is most commonly available.
This bronchoconstriction was significantly reduced (% inhibition) after pretreatment with the glucocorticosteroid budesonide (49%), the [[beta].sub.2] adrenergic agent
albuterol (71%), the anticholinergic agent atropine (58%), and the histamine [H.sub.1]-antagonist diphenhydramine (47%).
Phentermine (Ionamin[R], Fastin[R]), an adrenergic agent
, had been a previously FDA-approved appetite suppressant.
Phentermine is an adrenergic agent
, the chief side effects of which are tremulousness, jitteriness, anxiety, dry mouth, and mild insomnia.
Intravenous fluids are the first step in resuscitation, but often an intravenous adrenergic agent
as a continuous infusion is added as the next step.
-- Atomoxetine, a nonstimulant adrenergic agent
, appeared effective for pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, both in short- and long-term studies, according to posters presented at a meeting of the New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health.
Ma-huang is a natural source of ephedrine, an adrenergic agent
. Ma-huang is widely used in this country for its purported properties as a weight loss agent and energy booster.
They also include adrenergic agents
, with alpha-adrenergic blockers causing or contributing to urinary incontinence in women and alpha-adrenergic agonists--present in a vast number of OTC cold, sleep, and cough medications--being responsible for problems in men; drugs causing fluid accumulation, including the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, NSAIDs, some Parkinson's agents, and gabapentin/pregabalin; and ACE inhibitors because of their side effect of cough.
It is well known that adrenergic agents
decrease serum potassium and hence are used to treat life-threatening hyperkalemia.
Nagahara, "Effects of topical adrenergic agents
on tissue circulation in rabbit and human optic nerve head evaluated with laser speckle tissue circulation analyzer," Survey of Ophthalmology, vol.
It must be remembered that the later adrenergic agents
(albuterol, bitolterol, pirbuterol, levalbuterol, salmeterol, formoterol, and arformoterol) are much more beta 2 specific than previous agents such as epinephrine and isoetherine.
(15) Alpha-2 adrenergic agents
has got another advantage in prevention of shivering in the postoperative period due to intraoperative hypothermia.