androgen

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androgen

 [an´dro-jen]
any steroid hormone that promotes male secondary sex characters. The two main androgens are androsterone and testosterone. Called also androgenic hormone. adj., adj androgen´ic. 

The androgenic hormones are internal endocrine secretions circulating in the bloodstream and manufactured mainly by the testes under stimulation from the pituitary gland. To a lesser extent, androgens are produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes, as well as by the ovaries in women. Thus women normally have a small percentage of male hormones, in the same way that men's bodies contain some female sex hormones, the estrogens. Male secondary sex characters include growth of the beard and deepening of the voice at puberty. Androgens also stimulate the growth of muscle and bones throughout the body and thus account in part for the greater strength and size of men as compared to women.
androgen insensitivity syndrome complete androgen resistance.

an·dro·gen

(an'drō-jen),
Generic term for an agent, usually a hormone (for example, androsterone, testosterone), which stimulates activity of the accessory male sex organs, encourages development of male sex characteristics, or prevents changes in the latter due to castration; natural androgens are steroids, derivatives of androstane.
Synonym(s): testoid (2)

androgen

(ăn′drə-jən)
n.
A steroid hormone, such as testosterone or androsterone, that controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. Also called androgenic hormone.

an′dro·gen′ic (-jĕn′ĭk) adj.

an·dro·gen

(an'drŏ-jen)
Generic term for an agent, usually a hormone (e.g., androsterone, testosterone), which stimulates activity of the accessory male sex organs, promotes development of male sex characteristics, or prevents changes in the latter that follow castration; natural androgens are steroids, derivatives of androstane.

androgen

one of several types of male hormone that stimulate the development and maintenance of the male's SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS. Naturally occurring androgens (e.g. TESTOSTERONE) are STEROIDS which are produced mainly in the testis (see INTERSTITIAL CELLS), but also to a small extent in the OVARY and ADRENAL CORTEX.

Androgen

A natural or artificial steroid that acts as a male sex hormone. Androgens are responsible for the development of male sex organs and secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone and androsterone are androgens.

an·dro·gen

(an'drŏ-jen)
Generic term for an agent, usually a hormone (e.g., androsterone, testosterone), which stimulates activity of the accessory male sex organs, encourages development of male sex characteristics, or prevents changes in the latter due to castration.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thijssen, "Adrenal androgen secretion and metabolism in postmenopausal women," in Adrenal Androgens, A.
(9) Other diseases have been correlated to an excess production of adrenal androgen. For example, it has been estimated that in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome, 20-30% produce an excess of adrenal androgen, resulting in elevated levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS).
However, adrenal androgens were more suppressed in the osteopenic group, he noted.
Treatment with synthetic steroids that suppress the synthesis of testosterone and interfere with the activity of adrenal androgens has been reliably associated with diminished sexual interest and desire in at least 3 groups of individuals: Sex offenders, prostate cancer patients, and women suffering from various androgen-dependent hair and skin conditions.
The 24-hour urine is a must to control the reduction in adrenal androgens when dexamethasone is given to reduce body hair growth.
Treatment for patients with CAH involves the delicate balance of suppressing adrenal androgens while maintaining normal growth.
Aromatase deficiency causes virilization of the mother during pregnancy and ambiguous genitalia of the female fetus due to prenatal exposure to adrenal androgens. In the postpartum period, some clinical features of androgen excess regress and elevated androgen concentrations return to normal levels.
This might be caused by abundant adrenal androgens, which seems not to be the case in this group with AD/T ratio < 0.2.
There is evidence that even hormone refractory prostate cancer cells continue to be affected by androgen signalling.[sup.12,13,16,17] Potential mechanisms accounting for this include intratumoral amplification of the androgen receptor (AR), mutations of the AR, changes in levels of AR co-factors, increased expression of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis, enhanced intracellular conversion of adrenal androgens to testosterone and DHT within the tumour micro-environment, and ligand-independent activation of the AR.[sup.14,18] Because of these processes, there is a gradual shift during prostate cancer progression from endocrine sources of androgens (i.e., from the testes and adrenal glands) to paracrine, autocrine and intracrine sources within the tumour micro-environment.
In most of the studies it has been seen that girls with premature adrenarche (the onset of pubic hair before the age of 8 years is associated with elevated levels of adrenal androgens and no evidence of true puberty or adrenal dysfunction) may be at increased risk for development of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).22 Premature pubarche is not studied in the present data.
They found that castration-resistant metastases expressed higher levels of many enzymes responsible for the synthesis of adrenal androgens. They also observed high concentrations of intratumoral androgens in castrate-resistant xenografts lacking the adrenal cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP17A1) gene, which is critical for the production of androgens by the adrenal glands.