Redner et al., "Phase 1 clinical trial of adoptive immunotherapy
using "off-the-shelf' activated natural killer cells in patients with refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia," Cytotherapy, vol.
Halder et al., "Induction of Thelper1-driven antiviral T-cell lines for adoptive immunotherapy
is determined by differential expression of IFN-gamma and T-cell activation markers," Journal of Immunotherapy, vol.35, no.9, pp.
And in an American study into its effect on 33 patients with prostate cancer which had not responded to any other form of therapy, about a third who had adoptive immunotherapy
responded to treatment within 12 months.
Powell et al., "Cord blood natural killer cells expressing a dominant negative TGF-[beta] receptor: implications for adoptive immunotherapy
for glioblastoma," Cytotherapy, vol.
In contrast with CAR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy, which functions by targeting the surface antigens of tumor cells, engineering tumor-reactive TCR-T-cells can instead specifically recognize intracellular tumor antigens presented by HLA molecules .
TCRs that can recognize the tumor-associated antigen MART-1 were transduced into the autologous lymphocytes from peripheral blood of a patient with melanoma, generating engineered tumor-specific T-cells for adoptive immunotherapy .
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) based adoptive immunotherapy is an attractive approach to treat patients with cancer as this strategy can combine the specificity of mAb with the active biodistribution, expansion potential, long-term persistence, and cytotoxic function of effector immune-cells [106, 107].
The role and difference of specific effector cell population have gained more attention in recent years as another important aspect for effective adoptive immunotherapy. In the context of 1st-generation CARs, virus specific T cells (VSTs) can provide additional costimulatory signals and improve CAR T cell persistence and antitumor functions [120, 121, 138].
Paulos et al., "IL-2 and IL-21 confer opposing differentiation programs to [CD8.sup.+] T cells for adoptive immunotherapy
," Blood, vol.
Kruse, "Long-term follow-up of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas treated with adjuvant adoptive immunotherapy
," Neurosurgery, vol.
Wu et al., "Increasing the frequency of CIK cells adoptive immunotherapy
may decrease risk of death in gastric cancer patients," World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.
has now been available for nearly 30 years and holds great promise among potential new approaches for the treatment of solid tumors refractory to conventional therapies .