ado-trastuzumab emtansine

ado-trastuzumab emtansine

(ado tras-tooz-doo-mab em-tan-seen) ,


(trade name)


Therapeutic: antineoplastics
Pharmacologic: drug antibody conjugates
Pregnancy Category: D


HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane.


A HER2-targeted antibody and microtubule inhibitor conjugate. Trastuzumab, the antibody, attaches to receptors and is taken into the cell, where the microtubule inhibitor, DM1, causes cell cycle arrest and death.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased spread of metastatic breast cancer, with improved progression-free survival.


Absorption: IV administration results in complete bioavailability.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: DM1 is metabolized by CYP3A4/5.
Half-life: 4 days.

Time/action profile (comparative improvement in progression-free survival)

IV4–6 mos10–12 mos2 yr


Contraindicated in: Interstitial lung disease or pneumonitis;Concurrent use of strong inhibitors of CYP3A4; Lactation: Breast feeding should be avoided; Obstetric: May cause fetal harm.
Use Cautiously in: Underlying cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, including dyspnea at rest; Obstetric: Patients with reproductive potential (contraception required during and for 6 mos following treatment); Pediatric: Safety and effectiveness not established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • fatigue (most frequent)
  • headache (most frequent)
  • dizziness
  • insomnia
  • weakness


  • pulmonary toxicity (life-threatening)
  • cough

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • blurred vision
  • conjuncitivitis
  • dry eyes
  • ↑ lacrimation


  • left ventricular dysfunction (life-threatening)
  • hypertension
  • peripheral edema


  • hepatotoxicity (life-threatening)
  • constipation (most frequent)
  • ↑ liver enzymes (most frequent)
  • nausea (most frequent)
  • altered taste
  • diarrhea
  • dry mouth
  • dyspepsia
  • stomatitis
  • vomiting


  • pruritus
  • rash

Fluid and Electrolyte

  • hypokalemia


  • thrombocytopenia (life-threatening)
  • anemia (most frequent)
  • ne
  • neutropenia


  • musculoskeletal pain (most frequent)
  • arthralgia
  • myalgia


  • peripheral neuropathy


  • hypersensitivity reactions (life-threatening)
  • chills
  • infusion-related reactions
  • fever


Drug-Drug interaction

Blood levels and risk of toxicity may be ↑ by concurrent use of strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 including atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, and voriconazole, and should be avoided, waiting 3 half-lives of inhibitor to start treatment.


Intravenous (Adults) 3.6 mg/kg once every 3 wk continued until disease progresses or unacceptable toxicity occurs. Dose modifications (reduction or temporary discontinuation) required for ↑ transaminases, hyperbilirubinemia, left ventricular dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy or thrombocytopenia.


Lyophilized powder for intravenous injection (requires reconstitution): 100 mg/vial, 160 mg/vial

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Evaluate left ventricular function in all patients prior to and every 3 months during therapy. If symptomatic HF: discontinue ado-trastuzumab. If left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%: Hold dose. Repeat LVSF assessment within 3 wks. If LVEF <40% is confirmed, discontinue therapy. If LVEF 40% to ≤45% and decrease is ≥10% points from baseline: Hold dose. Repeat LVEF within 3 wks. If LVEF has not recovered to within 10% points from baseline, discontinue therapy. If LVEF 40% to ≤45% and decrease is <10% points from baseline: Continue therapy with ado-trastuzumab. Repeat LVEF within 3 wks. If LVEF >45%: Continue therapy.
  • Monitor infusion site closely for infiltration and extravasation closely. Within 24 hrs erythema, tenderness, skin irritation, pain, or swelling at infusion site is seen if extravasation occurs.
  • Assess for signs and symptoms of infusion reactions (fever, chills, flushing, dyspnea, hypotension, wheezing, bronchospasm, tachycardia). Interrupt therapy if symptoms are severe. Observe closely during first infusion. Permanently discontinue for life-threatening reactions.
  • Monitor neurologic status before and during treatment. Assess for paresthesia (numbness, tingling, pain, burning sensation), loss of deep tendon reflexes (Achilles reflex is usually first involved), weakness (wrist drop or footdrop, gait disturbances), cranial nerve palsies (jaw pain, hoarseness, ptosis, visual changes), arthralgia, myalgia, muscle spasm, autonomic dysfunction (ileus, difficulty voiding, orthostatic hypotension, impaired sweating), and CNS dysfunction (decreased level of consciousness, agitation, hallucinations). Temporarily discontinue therapy in patients with Grade 3 or 4 peripheral neuropathy (severe symptoms; limiting self-care activities of daily living (ADL) until resolution to ≤Grade 2 (moderate symptoms; limiting instrumental ADL) neuropathy.
  • Monitor for signs and symptoms of pulmonary toxicity (dyspnea, cough, fatigue, pulmonary infiltrates). Permanently discontinue therapy if interstitial lung disease or pneumonitis develops.
  • Lab Test Considerations: genetic implication HER2 protein overexpression is used to determine whether treatment with ado-trastuzumab is indicated. HER2 protein overexpression should be determined by labs with proficiency in specific technology used.
    • Monitor serum transaminases and bilirubin prior to starting therapy and before each dose. If AST /ALT is Grade 2 (>2.5 to ≤5 × upper limit of normal): Treat at same dose. If AST/ALT is Grade 3 (>5 to ≤20 × upper limit of normal): Do not administer ado-trastuzumab until AST/ALT recovers to Grade ≤2, and then reduce 1 dose level. If AST/ALT is Grade 4 (>20 × upper limit of normal): Permanently discontinue ado-trastuzumab. If serum bilirubin is Grade 2 (>1.5 to ≤3 × upper limit of normal): Hold dose until bilirubin recovers to Grade≤1, then treat at same dose level. If bilirubin is Grade 3 (>3 to ≤10 × upper limit of normal): Hold dose until bilirubin recovers to Grade ≤1, then reduce 1 dose level. If bilirubin is Grade 4 (>10 × upper limit of normal): Permanently discontinue ado-trastuzumab. Permanently discontinue ado-trastuzumab in patients with AST/ALT >3 × upper limit of normal and concomitant total bilirubin >2 × upper limit of normal.
    • Monitor platelet count prior to starting therapy and before each dose. Nadir of thrombocytopenia occurs by Day 8 and generally improves to Grade 0 or 1 by next scheduled dose. If thrombocytopenia is Grade 3 (PLT 25,000/mm3 to <50,000/mm3: Hold dose until platelet count recovers to ≤Grade 1 (≥75,000/mm3), then treat at same dose level. If thrombocytopenia is Grade 4 (PLT <25,000/mm3): Hold dose until platelet count recovers to ≤Grade 1, then reduce 1 dose level.
    • May cause ↓ hemoglobin, neutrophils, and serum potassium.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)


  • high alert: Do not confuse ado-trastuzumab (Kadcyla) with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Double check names. Trade name of administered product should be clearly recorded in patient file to improve traceability.
  • high alert: Fatalities have occurred with chemotherapeutic agents. Before administering, clarify all ambiguous orders; double check single, daily, and course-of-therapy dose limits; have second practitioner independently double check original order, dose calculations and infusion pump settings.
  • Solution should be prepared in a biologic cabinet. Wear gloves, gown, and mask while handling medication. Discard IV equipment in specially designated containers (see ).
  • Intermittent Infusion: Reconstitute by slowly inject 5 or 8 mL of Sterile Water for Injection into 100 or 160 mg vial of ado-trastuzumab respectively, for a solution of 20 mg/mL. Swirl gently until dissolved; do not shake. Solution is clear, colorless to pale brown, and slightly opalescent; do not administer solutions that are discolored or contain particulate matter. Use reconstituted vials immediately or store in refrigerator up to 4 hr; then discard. Do not freeze. Calculate amount of solution needed. Diluent: Withdraw from vial and add to infusion bag containing 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl; do not use dextrose solution. Gently invert bag to mix without foaming. Use diluted solution immediately; may be stored in refrigerator up to 24 hrs prior to use, then discard; do not freeze or shake. Administer every 3 wks (21–day cycle); if cycle is delayed, administer as soon as possible. Do not wait until next planned cycle; maintain 3-wk interval between doses.
  • Rate: Infuse through a 0.22 micron in-line non-protein adsorptive polyethersulfone (PES) filter. Do not administer as IV push or bolus. First infusion: Infuse over 90 min; observe for infusion related reaction. Subsequent infusions: Infuse over 30 min if prior infusions were well tolerated. Observe patient during infusion and for at least 90 min after infusion.
  • Management of increased serum transaminases, hyperbilirubinemia, left ventricular dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, pulmonary toxicity, or peripheral neuropathy may require temporary interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation.
    • Dose reduction schedule is: Starting dose—3.6 mg/kg; First dose reduction—3 mg/kg; Second dose reduction—2.4 mg/kg; Requirement for further dose reduction—discontinue therapy.
  • Y-Site Incompatibility: Do not mix or administer with other medications.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Explain purpose of medication to patient.
  • Inform patient of potential liver injury and HF. Advise patient to notify health care professional immediately if signs and symptoms of liver injury (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice, dark urine, pruritus, anorexia) or HF (new onset or worsening shortness of breath, cough, swelling of ankles/legs, palpitations, weight gain of >5 lbs in 24 hrs, dizziness, loss of consciousness) occur.
  • Advise patient to notify health care professional if signs of peripheral neuropathy (burning, numbness, pain in hands and feet/legs) occur.
  • Ado-trastuzumab can cause fetal harm. Advise male and female patient to use a highly effective method (IUD, hormonal contraceptive, tubal ligation, partner's vasectomy) of contraception during and for at least 6 months after last dose. Instruct patient to notify health care professional promptly if pregnancy is suspected or if breast feeding. Encourage women who have been exposed to ado-trastuzumab either directly or through seminal fluid, to enroll in the MotHER Pregnancy Registry by contacting 1-800-690-6720.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decreased spread of metastatic breast cancer.
Drug Guide, © 2015 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Kadcyla[R] (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) for adjuvant (after surgery) treatment of people with HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC) who have residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant (before surgery) taxane and Herceptin[R] (trastuzumab)-based treatment.
[Fam-] trastuzumab deruxtecan is in pivotal phase 3 development in previously treated HER2 low expressing metastatic breast cancer versus investigator's choice (DESTINY-Breast04); phase 3 development in HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer versus ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) (DESTINY-Breast03); and phase 3 development in HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer versus investigator's choice post T-DM1 (DESTINY-Breast02).
All study patients had previously received trastuzumab and pertuzumab, and approximately 90% had previously received ado-trastuzumab emtansine. The combination of margetuximab and chemotherapy demonstrated acceptable safety and tolerability, comparable overall to that of trastuzumab and chemotherapy.
- US-based biotechnology company Genentech, a member of Switzerland's Roche Group (SIX: ROG) (OTCQX: RHHBY), has completed the submission of a supplemental Biologics License Application to the US Food and Drug Administration for Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) for adjuvant (after surgery) treatment of people with HER2-positive early breast cancer with residual disease after neoadjuvant (before surgery) treatment, the company said.
The Mother Pregnancy Registry, INC Research (800-690-6720), is enrolling breast cancer patients who have been treated during pregnancy with ado-trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla), pertuzumab (Perjeta), or trastuzumab (Herceptin).
Over the past two decades, the approvals of four targeted treatments (trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine or T-DM1) have led to improved time to progression and survival rates of HER2+ patients.
Preliminary overall efficacy results in 20 evaluable patients demonstrated an objective response rate of 35% (seven partial responses) and disease control rate of 90%, including 12 patients previously treated with ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and five patients with HER2 low expression (IHC2+/FISH- or IHC1+).
The global breast cancer therapeutics market report estimates the market size (Revenue USD million - 2013 to 2020) for key market segments based on the drug classes - brand name (chemical name) such as antimetabolites - Gemzar (gemcitabine), aromatase inhibitors - Afinitor (everolimus), Arimidex (anastrozole), Aromasin (exemestane), Femara (leterozole), Ibrance (palbociclib); Her2 Inhibitors - Herceptin (trastuzumab), Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine), Perjeta (pertuzumab), Tykerb (lapatinib); Hormone receptors - Fareston, Faslodex, Zoladex; and Mitotic inhibitors - Halaven (eribulin), Ixempra (ixabepilone), Taxotere (docetaxel), and forecasts growth trends (CAGR% - 2016 to 2020).
Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Ado-trastuzumab emtansine is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab linked to the cytotoxic agent mertansine (DM1).
Kadcyla, which is manufactured by a subsidiary of the Roche group, is properly known as ado-trastuzumab emtansine. This is similar to another Roche drug, the breast cancer therapy Herceptin, which is generically known as trastuzumab.
The US Food and Drug Administration said on Friday it had approved Kadcyla, also known as ado-trastuzumab emtansine, for patients whose cancer cells contain increased amounts of a protein known as HER2.