Autocrine and paracrine factors released from human adipose tissue, in particular the visceral depots; including cytokines, acute phase reactants, growth factors, and other inflammatory mediators. Many are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis.
Synonym(s): adipocytokines.
[adipo- + G. kineō to set in motion]
References in periodicals archive ?
Plasma samples were analyzed both undiluted and 100X diluted in serum diluent (R & D Systems) and PBS (1:1), the latter for measurement of plasma adipokines present in very high concentrations, i.
46) As described in the accompanying article, surplus lipids lead to lipotoxicity and apoptosis, while adipokines promote inflammation, atherosclerosis, and CVD.
She also was interested in learning about adipokines that are found in fat cells, and she wanted to "decrease housing for these chemicals" as much as she could.
Postnatal programming of glucocorticoid metabolism in rats modulates high-fat diet-induced regulation of visceral adipose tissue glucocorticoid exposure and sensitivity and adiponectin and proinflammatory adipokines gene expression in adulthood.
The sixteen rare young adult obesity-discordant identical (monozygotic) twin pairs (intra-pair difference in BMI aAeAN3kg/m2 and BMI range 20-40 and aged 23-36 years, were examined for detailed characteristics of metabolic health (subcutaneous-, intra-abdominal- and liver fat [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ spectroscopy]), an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood), lipids, and certain markers of inflammation such as adipokines and C-reactive protein (CRP).
Macronutrient composition and increased physical activity modulate plasma adipokines and appetite hormones during a weight loss intervention.
James Nishimuta and Marc Levenston from the Mechanical Engineering Department at Stanford University in California have been investigating the effects of adipokines on osteoarthritis.
They include a stress reaction by the body and adipooe hypertrophy which leads to increased expansion of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators called adipokines, and eventually may progress to cell rupture with a resulting inflammatory response (6).
One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that fat cells may produce adipokines, which may have a proinflammatory effect.
Elevated levels of free fatty acids, insulin and several adipokines, as observed in metabolic syndrome, induce hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11[beta]-HSD1) gene expression in the liver.