adenylate cyclase


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Related to adenylate cyclase: cyclic AMP, Phospholipase C, Protein kinase A

adenylate cyclase

 [ah-den´ĭ-lāt si´clās]
an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi ). It is activated by the attachment of a hormone or neurotransmitter to a specific membrane-bound receptor.

a·den·y·late cy·clase

an enzyme acting on ATP to form 3',5'-cyclic AMP plus pyrophosphate, a crucial step in the regulation and formation of second messengers.
Synonym(s): 3', 5'-cyclic AMP synthetase

adenylate cyclase

(ə-dĕn′əl-ĭt, ăd′n-ĭl′ĭt) also

adenyl cyclase

(ə-dĕn′əl, ăd′n-ĭl)
n.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP and plays a key role in signal transduction.

Adenylate Cyclase

An enzyme that catalyses ATP to form 3’,5’-cyclic AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. G proteins dissociate into GTP-bound alpha subunits—activating adenylyl cyclase, retinal phosphodiesterase, phospholipase C, and ion channels—and a complex of beta and gamma subunits, selectively activating certain forms of adenylate cyclase following interaction with the cell receptors. Adenylate cyclase is intimately linked to the receptor-G protein machinery on the cytoplasmic face of cell membrane, which generates the second messenger, cAMP, when stimulated by an extracellular message in the form of receptor binding of a hormone or other ligand, light, or odours. Adenylate cyclase is the prototypic second messenger generator, and is regulated by one or the other arm of the phospholipase C pathway. It is further regulated by cyclic changes in cAMP and internal Ca2+ levels.

a·den·y·late cy·clase

(ă-den'i-lāt sī'klās)
An enzyme acting on ATP to form 3',5'-cyclic AMP plus pyrophosphate. A crucial step in the regulation and formation of second messengers.
Synonym(s): 3', 5'-cyclic AMP synthetase.

adenylate cyclase

The enzyme that converts ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) to cyclic AMP.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread occurrence in various organs and diverse effects both in the nervous system and in the periphery [1, 2].
Initial biochemical studies indicated that the [beta] adrenergic receptor, which was assessed as the binding component of [[sup.125]I]IHYP (iodohydroxybenzylindolol), and the component with GppNHp-activated adenylate cyclase activity could be physically separated as distinct entities.
Nestler, "A novelaction of morphine in the rat locus coeruleus: persistent decrease in adenylate cyclase," Molecular Pharmacology, vol.
Increased activity of adenylate cyclase caused by THs, independent of propranolol blockade, has been shown in cultured cerebral cells from embryonic mice, suggesting that the effect of [T.sub.3] was not mediated through a [beta]-adrenergic-dependent system [34].
By clearly identifying the critical steps and the experimental tools that allow their dissection, we were able to define a proapoptotic pathway which (a) begins on surface receptors; (b) requires adenylate cyclase followed by PKA signaling; (c) induces iNOS followed by iNOS-mediated NO production; and (d) ultimately triggers apoptosis through an interaction between two well-defined surface molecules, CD95L and CD95.
In experimental cirrhosis of rats, in which cirrhosis was introduced either by bile duct ligation or exposure to carbon tetra chloride, several abnormalities in beta adrenergic signaling pathway have been identified for example decrease in beta adrenergic receptor density, reduction in G5 proteins and increase in adenylate cyclase activity with resultant decrease in cAMP generation, all of which have negative effect on cardiomyocyte contractility8.
The amplified genes were cloned in-frame at the C-terminal end (in the pKT25 and pUCT18C plasmids) or the N-terminal region (in the pKNT25 and pUT18 plasmids) of the T25 or TI8 domain coding sequence of the bacterial adenylate cyclase. Plasmids were introduced by electroporation into BTH101 cells and the transformed cells were assayed for [beta]-galactosidase activity.
Vasoactive intestinal pepetide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (pacap) as modulators of both inate and adaptive immunity.
The authors suggest this could be due to altered intracellular communication, since loss of the protein is associated with decreased phosphorylation of an associated enzyme called adenylate cyclase, a key player in the chemical signaling underlying the sense of smell.
As a last resort the hepatocytes sent out a plea, "Is there anyone who can control this exasperating spree?" A little molecule called cyclic AMP raised up her hand; "I'll take charge," she said; "just give me a command; Just release adenylate cyclase, let it act on ATP, Once I'm formed, I can work wonders for a small fee." She stood like a sentinel in their very midst; That all hormones act through her she did insist.
After internalization, S1 transfers the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to the Gi regulatory component of the adenylate cyclase complex.
The W07-toxin could also cause elevation in the adenylate cyclase dependent-cAMP levels in mice enterocytes.