adenosine monophosphate

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Related to adenosine monophosphate: guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate


1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

a·den·o·sine mon·o·phos·phate (AMP),

specifically, adenosine 5'-monophosphate. See: adenylic acid.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

adenosine monophosphate

1. AMP.
2. Cyclic AMP.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

a·den·o·sine mon·o·phos·phate

(AMP) (ă-den'ō-sēn mon'ō-fos'fāt)
Adenosine 5'-monophosphate.
See: adenylic acid
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

adenosine monophosphate (AMP)

Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

adenosine monophosphate

see AMP.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

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References in periodicals archive ?
Perturbations of nucleotide metabolites, such as orotic acid, uridine 5'-monophosphate, uric acid, adenosine monophosphate, uridine, and uracil, were observed in the present study in the HS groups.
DHFR: dihydrofolate reductase; TYMS: thymidylate synthase; ATIC: aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase; FAICAR: 5-formamidoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide; IMP: inosine monophosphate; AMP: adenosine monophosphate; AMPK 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; ADA adenosine deaminase; 5'-NT: 5'-nucleotidase; -: inhibition; + activation.
A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled comparative clinical trial of arginine aspartate plus adenosine monophosphate for the intermittent treatment of male erectile dysfunction.
Most drugs designed to act on AMPK do so by increasing levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
The process involves the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, a uric acid precursor, said Dr.
Examples of cyclic nucleotides are cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
Although metformin is often described as an insulin sensitizer because it reduces hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant patients, he and his colleagues have shown that it acts as a growth inhibitor in human epithelial cells, including breast cancer cells, by activating the adenosine monophosphate kinase pathway (Cancer Res.
The fourth treatment, theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that prevents the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (the second messenger produced by adenylyl cyclase), was the only agent that restored cell signaling to normal or supranormal levels but did so at further cost to cell replication.
Linguagen Corporation, a taste technology company based in Cranford, NJ, recently received a letter from FDA indicating that the agency does not have any questions regarding the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of its bitter blocker adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
The new theophylline-related drugs are phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors that target cyclic adenosine monophosphate and prevent its breakdown.
Replicate tubes containing these compounds were added to a buffered cocktail that consisted of 25 mM adenosine monophosphate, 0.5 M N-acetylglucosamine, 0.2% Triton X-100, bovine serum albumin 2 mg/ml, 40 mM [MnCl.sub.2], and 0.2 M 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid pH 6.1 in a total volume of 62.5 [micro]l.
The effects of caffeine in the control of BBB integrity have been associated with its antagonistic actions on adenosine receptors and consequent inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activity and control of calcium intracellular stores [108].

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