adenosine diphosphate


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Related to adenosine diphosphate: adenosine monophosphate

adenosine

 [ah-den´o-sēn]
1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
Adenosine.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.

a·den·o·sine 5'-di·phos·phate (ADP),

(ă-den'ō-sēn dī-fos'fāt),
A condensation product of adenosine with pyrophosphoric acid, formed from ATP by the hydrolysis of the terminal phosphoryl group of the latter compound.

adenosine diphosphate

n.
ADP.

adenosine diphosphate

An adenosine with 2 high-energy phosphates, which results from the hydrolysis of ATP, that occurs in many metabolic processes. ADP is converted back to ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.

adenosine diphosphate

see ADP.
References in periodicals archive ?
A, Bar heights represent mean RANTES (chemokine ligand 5; regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) levels in samples of whole blood (WB)-derived PCs (N = 10) obtained from a blood donor center before and after the addition of 20 [micro]M adenosine diphosphate (ADP; black bars; Post-ADP) or 0.9% normal saline (gray bars; Control).
The mTEG instrument uses 4 channels to detect the effects of antiplatelet therapy acting via the arachidonic acid and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) pathways.[15] An mTEG hemostasis analyzer (Haemonetics Corp., Massachusetts, USA) and automated analytical software (Haemonetics Corp., Massachusetts, USA) were used to measure the physical properties.
[Alpha] granules contain a number of different proteins, including fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor, von Willebrand factor, factor V, fibronectin, [Beta]-thromboglobulin, and heparin-neutralizing factor (platelet factor 4).[1,2] [Delta] Granules contain calcium, serotonin, pyrophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate.[1,2] Determination of storage pool organelles by transmission electron microscopy allows the identification of storage pool defects.
In most patients with platelet SPD, the platelets aggregate initially to adenosine diphosphate or epinephrine, but second-phase aggregation is frequently markedly diminished.
Intracellular Ca[sup]2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced ALI, and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca[sup]2+ mobilization.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, cluster of differentiation 38, and intracellular calcium levels in the lungs of septic rats increased significantly at 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture surgery
Intracellular calcium overload was inhibited by 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose in the lungs of septic rats
Correlations were well between the two tests in the adenosine diphosphate induced platelet reactivity (Spearman r = 0.733, P < 0.001).
[sup][3],[4],[5],[6] Therefore, HPR to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) assessed by several platelet function tests is a major risk factor for the occurrence of ischemic events following PCI.
With a rapid onset and good effect on newly formed thrombi, Urokinase can also increase the vascular enzymatic activity of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation and prevent thrombosis.
PRP was allowed to stand at room temperature for 30 minutes Platelet aggregation was performed by turbidometric technique on Chronolog aggregometer by adding 10 um/ml Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and 1.25 mg/ml Ristocetin and collagen 2 ug/ml, Epinephrine 10 um/ml in 250uL PRP in separate cuvettes.

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