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carcinoma[kahr″sĭ-no´mah] (pl. carcinomas, carcino´mata)
a malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate surrounding tissues and to give rise to metastases. A form of cancer, carcinoma makes up the majority of the cases of malignancy of the breast, uterus, intestinal tract, skin, and tongue.
adenocystic carcinoma (adenoid cystic carcinoma) carcinoma marked by cylinders or bands of hyaline or mucinous stroma separated or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells, occurring in the mammary and salivary glands, and mucous glands of the respiratory tract. Called also cylindroma.
alveolar carcinoma bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
basal cell carcinoma the most common form of skin cancer, consisting of an epithelial tumor of the skin originating from neoplastic differentiation of basal cells, rarely metastatic but locally invasive and aggressive. It usually occurs as small pearly nodules or plaques on the face of an older adult, particularly on a sun-exposed area of someone with fair skin. It has been divided into numerous subtypes on the basis of clinical and histological characteristics.
basosquamous carcinoma carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements.
bronchioalveolar carcinoma (bronchiolar carcinoma) (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) (bronchoalveolar carcinoma) a variant type of adenocarcinoma of the lung, with columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells lining the alveolar septa and projecting into alveolar spaces in branching papillary formations. Called also alveolar carcinoma or adenocarcinoma and bronchiolar, bronchioloalveolar, or bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma.
bronchogenic carcinoma any of a large group of carcinomas of the lung, so called because they arise from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. Four primary subtypes are distinguished: adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
cholangiocellular carcinoma a rare type of hepatocellular carcinoma arising from the cholangioles, consisting of two layers of cells surrounding a minute lumen. Called also bile duct carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma.
chorionic carcinoma choriocarcinoma.
colloid carcinoma mucinous carcinoma.
cylindrical cell carcinoma carcinoma in which the cells are cylindrical or nearly so.
embryonal carcinoma a highly malignant germ cell tumor that is a primitive form of carcinoma, probably of primitive embryonal cell derivation; it usually arises in a gonad and may be found either in pure form or as part of a mixed germ cell tumor.
epidermoid carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma.
giant cell carcinoma a poorly differentiated, highly malignant, epithelial neoplasm containing many large multinucleated tumor cells, such as occurs in the lungs.
hepatocellular carcinoma primary carcinoma of the liver cells with hepatomegaly, jaundice, hemoperitoneum, and other symptoms of the presence of an abdominal mass. It is rare in North America and Western Europe but is one of the most common malignancies in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and elsewhere. A strong association seems to exist with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Hürthle cell carcinoma a malignant Hürthle cell tumor.
carcinoma in si´tu a neoplasm whose tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane; the likelihood of subsequent invasive growth is presumed to be high.
large cell carcinoma a type of bronchogenic carcinoma of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size, a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone further dedifferentiation.
medullary carcinoma that composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma a malignant tumor arising in the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx, occurring at high frequency in people of Chinese descent. The epstein-barr virus has been implicated as a causative agent.
non–small cell carcinoma a general term comprising all lung carcinomas except small cell carcinoma, and including adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
oat cell carcinoma a form of small cell carcinoma in which the cells are round or elongated and slightly larger than lymphocytes; they have scanty cytoplasm and clump poorly.
papillary carcinoma carcinoma in which there are papillary growths that are irregular in nature arising from otherwise normal tissue; it can occur in the thyroid gland, the breast, or the bladder. Called also papillocarcinoma.
renal cell carcinoma carcinoma of the renal parenchyma, composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements; called also clear cell carcinoma.
scirrhous carcinoma carcinoma with a hard structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. Called also fibrocarcinoma.
carcinoma sim´plex an undifferentiated carcinoma.
small cell carcinoma a common, highly malignant form of bronchogenic carcinoma in the wall of a major bronchus, occurring mainly in middle-aged individuals with a history of tobacco smoking; it is radiosensitive and has small oval undifferentiated cells. Metastasis to the hilum and to mediastinal lymph nodes is common.
spindle cell carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma marked by development of rapidly proliferating spindle cells.
squamous cell carcinoma
1. carcinoma developed from squamous epithelium, having cuboid cells and characterized by keratinization. Initially local and superficial, the lesion may later invade and metastasize.
2. the form occurring in the skin, usually originating in sun-damaged areas or preexisting lesions.
3. in the lung, one of the most common types of bronchogenic carcinoma, generally forming polypoid or sessile masses that obstruct the airways of the bronchi. It usually occurs in middle-aged individuals with a history of smoking. There is frequent invasion of blood and lymphatic vessels with metastasis to regional lymph nodes and other sites. Called also epidermoid carcinoma.
transitional cell carcinoma a malignant tumor arising from a transitional type of stratified epithelium, usually affecting the urinary bladder.
1. a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has a predilection for the buccal mucosa but also affects other oral soft tissue and the larynx. It is slow-growing and somewhat invasive.
2. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor, so called because it is histologically similar to the oral lesion.
an uncommon malignant neoplasm composed of cords of uniform small epithelial cells arranged in a sievelike pattern around cystic spaces that often contain mucus. The tumor occurs most frequently in the salivary glands, breast, mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and, occasionally, in vestibular glands of the vulva. The malignant slow growth tends to spread along nerves, causing neurological damage. Facial paralysis often results from adenocystic carcinoma of the salivary gland. Blood-borne metastases to lungs and liver have been reported. Standard treatment involves surgery followed by radiation. Chemotherapy has not proven effective or safe. Also called adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenomyoepithelioma, cribriform carcinoma, cylindroma.