extinction

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extinction

 [eks-ting´shun]
in psychology, the disappearance of a conditioned response as a result of its not being reinforced; also, the process by which the disappearance is accomplished. See also conditioning.

ex·tinc·tion

(eks-tingk'shŭn),
1. In behavior modification or in classical or operant conditioning, a progressive decrease in the frequency of a response that is not positively reinforced; the withdrawal of reinforcers known to maintain an undesirable behavior.
2. Synonym(s): absorbance
[L. extinguo, to quench]

extinction

(ĭk-stĭngk′shən)
n.
1.
a. The act of extinguishing: The extinction of the fire took several hours.
b. The condition of being extinguished: mourned the extinction of her dreams.
2. The fact of being extinct or the process of becoming extinct: the extinction of the passenger pigeon; languages that are in danger of extinction.
3. Psychology A reduction or a loss in the strength or rate of a conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus or reinforcement is withheld.
4. Physiology A gradual decrease in the excitability of a nerve to a previously adequate stimulus, usually resulting in total loss of excitability.

extinction

Psychiatry A facet of operant–classical conditioning, in which the conditioned response is weakened and eventually disappears by nonreinforcement. See Operant conditioning, Respondent conditioning, Sensory extinction.

ex·tinc·tion

(eks-tingk'shŭn)
1. In behavior modification or classical or operant conditioning, a progressive decrease in the frequency of a response that is not positively reinforced.
See: conditioning
2. Synonym(s): absorbance.
[L. extinguo, to quench]

extinction

  1. the act of making EXTINCT or the state of being extinct.
  2. the elimination of an allele of a gene in a population, due to RANDOM GENETIC DRIFT or to adverse SELECTION pressures.
  3. any periodical, catastrophic event resulting in a species or larger taxonomic group dying out abruptly at a particular point in geological history. Such extinctions are thought to be cyclical, occurring every 28.4 million years, and have been attributed to cosmic activity such as showers of large asteroids or comets, though neither the periodicity nor its causes are at present universally accepted.
References in periodicals archive ?
(200.) Likewise, if the bequest to A under the will were specific rather than general, then the doctrine of ademption by satisfaction might not apply under state law, rendering the doctrine of advancement potentially relevant.
The Uniform Probate Code could be clearer on this point: nowhere does its section covering ademption by satisfaction expressly limit the doctrine to gifts that succeed wills.
(130) Ademption by satisfaction represents an extension of this policy.
(134) In other words, the Babylonians--like the Commissioners--declined to apply a doctrine of ademption by satisfaction to children.
(130) In addition, the "double-gift" is covered through the will theory of ademption: if there is insufficient property to fill a bequest, the legatee either receives nothing if the legacy is "specific" or the nearest equivalent if the legacy is "general." (131) Therefore, although legal problems exist with a future gift, most if not all are problems that are inherent in any type of property transfer.
775, 780 (2002); Note, Ademption and the Testator's Intent, 74 HARV.