adefovir dipivoxil


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Related to adefovir dipivoxil: Entecavir, Tenofovir

adefovir dipivoxil

Hepsera

Pharmacologic class: Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor

Therapeutic class: Antiviral

Pregnancy risk category C

FDA Box Warning

• Severe acute hepatitis exacerbations have occurred after drug withdrawal. Monitor hepatic function closely for at least several months in patients who discontinue drug or other anti-hepatitis B therapy; if appropriate, resume such therapy.

• Long-term therapy may cause nephrotoxicity in patients with or at risk for underlying renal dysfunction. Monitor renal function closely and adjust dosage as needed.

• Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistance may occur during therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection who have unrecognized or untreated HIV infection.

• Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis (including fatal cases) may occur with use of drug alone or combined with other antiretrovirals.

Action

Inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase and suppresses HBV replication

Availability

Tablets: 10 mg

Indications and dosages

Chronic HBV with active viral replication plus persistent elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or histologically active disease

Adults: 10 mg P.O. daily

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• lactic acidosis, renal or hepatic impairment

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

• Offer HIV testing before starting therapy. (Drug may increase resistance to antiretrovirals in HIV patients.)

• Give with or without food.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, dyspepsia, anorexia, pancreatitis

GU: renal dysfunction

Hepatic: severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, hepatitis exacerbation (if therapy is withdrawn)

Metabolic: lactic acidosis

Respiratory: pneumonia

Other: fever, infection, pain, antiretroviral resistance in patients with unrecognized HIV

Interactions

Drug-drug. Acetaminophen, aspirin, indomethacin: granulocytopenia

Acyclovir, adriamycin, amphotericin B, benzodiazepines, cimetidine, dapsone, doxorubicin, experimental nucleotide analogue, fluconazole, flucytosine, ganciclovir, indomethacin, interferon, morphine, phenytoin, probenecid, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, vinblastine, vincristine: increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Drug-diagnostic tests. Amylase, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, hepatic enzymes, lipase: elevated levels

Patient monitoring

• Monitor fluid intake and output.

• Watch for hematuria.

• Assess for signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis, especially in women and overweight patients.

• Check for liver enlargement.

• Monitor liver and kidney function test results.

• After therapy ends, monitor patient for evidence of serious hepatitis exacerbation.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take drug with or without food.

• Instruct patient to drink plenty of fluids to ensure adequate urine output.

• Advise patient to monitor urine output and color and to report significant changes.

• Tell patient that drug may cause weakness. Discuss appropriate lifestyle adjustments.

• Caution patient not to take over-the-counter analgesics without prescriber's approval.

• Inform patient that he'll undergo regular blood testing during therapy.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

Adefovir Dipivoxil

A nucleoside analogue antiviral which is effective against viral polymerases (hepadnaviruses, retroviruses—e.g., HIV—herpesviruses—e.g., CMV), and used to treat hepatitis B in adults who have evidence of active viral replication, increased LFTs, histologically active liver disease, and evidence of HBV resistant to other antivirals—e.g., lamivudine.
Benefits 48 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil results in histologic liver improvement, reduces serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (LFTs), and slows progression of chronic hepatitis B.
Adverse effects Renal toxicity requiring monitoring, asthenia, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, nausea, severe acute exacerbation of hepatitis B after discontinuing.
Mechanism of action Slows progression of chronic hepatitis B by interfering with viral replication and causing DNA chain termination after its incorporation into viral DNA.

adefovir dipivoxil

Virology A nucleotide analogue effective against the polymerases of hepadnaviruses, retroviruses, herpesviruses, used to treat hepatitis Be antigen in adults with evidence of active viral replication, ↑ LFTs, or histologically active liver disease Adverse effects Renal damage requiring monitoring, diarrhea, nausea; in Pts with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B, 48 wks of adefovir dipivoxil resulted in histologic liver improvement, reduced serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase levels, and ↑ rates of HBeAg seroconversion. See AIDS, Hepatitis B.

adefovir dipivoxil

An antiviral drug used to treat chronic HEPATITIS B. A brand name is Hepsera.
References in periodicals archive ?
Abbreviations NA: Nucleos(t)ide analogues HBV: Hepatitis B virus CHB: Chronic hepatitis B HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma ETV: Entecavir LDT: Telbivudine LAM: Lamivudine ADV: Adefovir dipivoxil TDF: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen HBeAg: Hepatitis B e antigen AST: Aspartate transaminase ALT: Alanine transaminase CD[4.sup.+]T: CD4 positive T lymphocytes CD[8.sup.+]T: CD8 positive T lymphocytes Th1: Type 1 helper T lymphocytes Th2: Type 2 helper T lymphocytes ULN: Upper limit of normal EOT: End of treatment VR: Virological remission.
Tenofovir should not be used with adefovir dipivoxil or other nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, furosemide [Lasix[R]]).
Pathological femoral fractures due to osteomalacia associated with adefovir dipivoxil treatment for hepatitis B: a case report.
TDF was more effective than ADV in viral suppression and alleviating histologic inflammation, which has been showed in two international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase 3 studies comparing once-daily TDF and once-daily adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) [10].
Nucleotide analog, the leading antiviral product for the treatment of CHB, has such main varieties as entecavir, adefovir dipivoxil, lamivudine, telbivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil in the clinic.
Cytotoxicity of pivoxil esters of antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: adefovir dipivoxil versus adefovir.
Pooled analysis of amino acid changes in the HBV polymerase in patients from four major adefovir dipivoxil clinical trials.
Of five oral antiviral agents available for treatment of CHB, telbivudine and tenofovir are classified as FDA Pregnancy Category B (animal studies indicate no fetal risk, but no humans studies exist, or adverse effects in animals but not in humans), and lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil (adefovir), and entecavir are classified as Pregnancy Category C (no adequate human or animal studies; benefit may outweigh risk) [14, 17].
To do this biologically, we improve better our model by introducing the nucleoside analogues lamivudine or adefovir dipivoxil drug treatment in order to stop the virus from replicating.
Several new NAs such as adefovir dipivoxil (ADV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), and tenofovir (TDF) have become commercially available [102].
* Adefovir dipivoxil (Hepsera): A pill taken once a day for a year or longer.
Adefovir dipivoxil for wait-listed and post-liver transplantation patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B: Final long-term results.