additive effect


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Related to additive effect: antagonistic effect

effect

 [ĕ-fekt´]
a result produced by an action.
additive effect the combined effect produced by the action of two or more agents, being equal to the sum of their separate effects.
adverse effect a symptom produced by a drug or therapy that is injurious to the patient.
Bainbridge effect Bainbridge reflex.
Bohr effect decreased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen caused by an increase of carbon dioxide; the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is displaced to the right because of higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide and lower pH. See also Haldane effect.
The Bohr effect causing a shift to the right in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
Crabtree effect the inhibition of oxygen consumption on the addition of glucose to tissues or microorganisms having a high rate of aerobic glycolysis; the converse of the Pasteur effect.
cumulative effect the action of a drug or treatment resulting from repeated use.
Doppler effect see doppler effect.
experimenter e's demand characteristics.
extrapyramidal e's the side effects caused by neuroleptic medications, including dystonias, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia.
Haldane effect increased oxygenation of hemoglobin promotes dissociation of carbon dioxide; see also Bohr effect.
Hawthorne effect a psychological response in which the subjects in a research study change their behavior simply because they are subjects in a study, not because of the research treatment.
heel effect variation in x-ray beam intensity and projected focal spot size along the long axis of the x-ray tube from cathode to anode.
parallax effect the position of the image on each emulsion of dual emulsion film; it is accentuated by tube-angled x-ray techniques.
Pasteur effect the decrease in the rate of glycolysis and the suppression of lactate accumulation by tissues or microorganisms in the presence of oxygen.
photoelectric effect ejection of electrons from matter as a result of interaction with photons from high frequency electromagnetic radiation, such as x-rays; the ejected electrons may be energetic enough to ionize multiple additional atoms.
placebo effect the total of all nonspecific effects, both good and adverse, of treatment; it refers primarily to psychological and psychophysiological effects associated with the caregiver-patient relationship and the patient's expectations and apprehensions concerning the treatment. See also placebo.
position effect in genetics, the changed effect produced by alteration of the relative positions of various genes on the chromosomes.
pressure effect the sum of the changes that are due to obstruction of tissue drainage by pressure.
proarrhythmic effect any new, more advanced form of arrhythmia caused by an antiarrhythmic agent, especially those that produce hemodynamically important symptoms. These arrhythmias occur less than 30 days after initiation of treatment and are not due to a new event such as acute myocardial infarction or hypokalemia.
side effect a consequence other than that for which an agent is used, especially an adverse effect on another organ system.
Somogyi effect see somogyi effect.

ad·di·tive ef·fect

an effect wherein two or more substances or actions used in combination produce a total effect, the same as the arithmetic sum of the individual effects.

Additive Effect

The biologic effect of combining 2 or more agents, in which there is a simple summation of the effects of the individual agents.
Cf Antagonistic, Synergism

ad·di·tive ef·fect

(ad'i-tiv e-fekt')
An effect wherein two or more substances or actions used in combination produce a total effect the same as the arithmetic sum of the individual effects.

ad·di·tive ef·fect

(ad'i-tiv e-fekt')
Any effect wherein two or more substances or actions used in combination produce a total effect.
References in periodicals archive ?
(2007) and Kariuki, Ilatsia, Kosgey and Kahi (2010) found results where the model that considered the direct and maternal additive effects was the one that better fit to the data of birth weight by LRT.
Almost CRAB strains in this group showed the synergy or additive effect of colistin plus sulbactam, whereas the other REP-PCR groups (B-H) mostly showed indifferent effect of a couple of antimicrobials.
However, it is not clear if consideration of additive effects of the major contaminants known to exist in Great Lake fish would result in only slightly or substantially more stringent advisories.
Similarly to the MCV level, their additive effects had positive values, and the allele inherited from KNP was related to higher phenotypic values.
With the additive effect, a culture of employee engagement can lead to up to 18% higher revenue per employee, for a total of 51% higher growth potential when combined with selecting the right managers and individual contributors.
The performance of various compositions, consisting of a simple varnish system (urethane acrylate oligomers, monomer, photo-initiator) and different additives (silica, SB, CAN, nitrocellulose) was tested to explore additive effects on long-term and short-term characteristics of the coatings.
However, when VRZ was combined with AMB, 60% of isolates showed an additive effect. Against AMB+ ITZ, 13.33% of synergy was obtained, but indifference was the most frequent (56.67%).
Considering the significance of the variance of genotypes, Hayman method [4] was used to calculate the trait controlling genetic parameters including additive effect, dominance effect, average dominance degree, number of trait controlling genes, the ratio of the genes having positive and negative effects in parents, broad-sense and narrow-sense heritability, and graphic analysis.
APF and FD increased fluoride concentration in biofilm fluid and reduced root dentin demineralization, presenting an additive effect. Analysis of the data suggests that the combination of APF gel application and daily regular use of 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice may provide additional protection against root caries compared with the dentifrice alone.
"The results suggested that, although an elevated risk for light smokers and moderate smokers was not apparent, heavy smokers who started smoking early in life, smoked for a long duration, and smoked a high quantity were at the highest risk of breast cancer, supporting an independent and additive effect from various smoking measures on breast carcinogenesis," they said (Arch.
There was not a significant additive effect of student cultural literacy and aggregate demography in predicting students' lifelong adaptability ratings.
The goal was to look at the additive effect to see whether it confirmed our mechanistic view in terms of the broad action of Fruitflow and the more specific action of aspirin.