is highly specific to particular pathogens and can be either temporarily borrowed from an artificial source (passive immunity) or can be permanently acquired through the body's own immunological memory (active immunity).
Since there were many similarities in the pathological progress of obesity and T2DM, which are tightly linked, altered proliferation, function, or infiltration of components of adaptive immunity
and innate immunity is critical in the progression of T2DM.
The role of mammalian antimicrobial peptides and proteins in awakening of innate host defenses and adaptive immunity
. Cell Mol Life Sci 2001;58:978-89.
 Gasiunas, G., et al., Cas9-crRNA ribonucleoprotein complex mediates specific DNA cleavage for adaptive immunity
A unique feature of the adaptive immunity
is its ability to generate and to retain memory providing a more rapid response in the event of subsequent immunologic challenge.
Innate immunity: The host immunity is divided into innate and adaptive immunity
. The innate immunity is also termed as non-specific immunity, which acts as first line of bastille against infectious agents like intracellular bacteria (e.g.
This group found that mice deficient in FLG developed a skin inflammation analogous to AD (and driven by innate immunity), then later developed compromised lung function (a process resulting from adaptive immunity
Sympathetic hearing loss (SHL), also known as sympathetic cochleolabyrinthitis, is a rare phenomenon of immune-related hearing loss that is believed to occur when adaptive immunity
develops due to exposure of sequestered inner ear antigens to the surrounding circulatory milieu.
The Authors nicely and concisely illustrate (a) the effects of selected vanadium species in the immune system processes, (b) forms of vanadium exhibiting immunogenic activity, and (c) the key role(s) of vanadium in promoting innate and adaptive immunity
as well as (d) current obstacles to be overcome by specifically designed vanadium metallodrugs in cancer immunotherapeutics.
Immunology:Complement system, Innate and adaptive immunity
, clinical immunology, Basic principles and application of immunological and serological techniques.
Consequently, tumor cells are eliminated by adaptive immunity
through the activation of cytotoxic CD[8.sup.+] T-cells and NK-cells, and by innate immunity through the activation of antitumor macrophages (M1 subtype), antitumor neutrophils (N1 subtype), and granulocytes .
The adaptive immunity
, on the other hand, is more of an antigen-specific response, triggered only when the innate immune system has failed to overwhelm the infection.