adaptation


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adaptation

 [ad″ap-ta´shun]
1. a dynamic, ongoing, life-sustaining process by which living organisms adjust to environmental changes.
2. adjustment of the pupil to light.
biological adaptation the adaptation of living things to environmental factors for the ultimate purpose of survival, reproduction, and an optimal level of functioning.
color adaptation
1. changes in visual perception of color with prolonged stimulation.
2. adjustment of vision to degree of brightness or color tone of illumination.
dark adaptation adaptation of the eye to vision in the dark or in reduced illumination.
light adaptation adaptation of the eye to vision in the sunlight or in bright illumination (photopia), with reduction in the concentration of the photosensitive pigments of the eye.
physiological adaptation the ongoing process by which internal body functions are regulated and adjusted to maintain homeostasis in the internal environment.
psychological adaptation the ongoing process, anchored in the emotions and intellect, by which humans sustain a balance in their mental and emotional states of being and in their interactions with their social and cultural environments.
social adaptation adjustment and adaptation of humans to other individuals and community groups working together for a common purpose.

ad·ap·ta·tion

(ad'ap-tā'shŭn), Avoid the incorrect form adaption.
1. Preferential survival of members of a species because of a phenotype that enhances their capacity to withstand the environment, including the ecology.
2. An advantageous change in function or constitution of an organ or tissue to meet new conditions.
3. Adjustment of the sensitivity of the retina to light intensity.
4. A property of certain sensory receptors that modifies the response to repeated or continued stimuli at constant intensity.
5. The fitting, condensing, or contouring of a restorative material, foil, or shell to a tooth or cast to ensure close contact.
6. The dynamic process by which the thoughts, feelings, behavior, and biophysiologic mechanisms of the person continually adjust to a constantly changing environment. Synonym(s): adjustment (2)
7. A homeostatic response.
[L. ad-apto, pp. -atus, to adjust]

adaptation

(ăd′ăp-tā′shən)
n.
1.
a. The act or process of adapting.
b. The state of being adapted.
2. Biology
a. The alteration or adjustment in structure or habits, often occurring through natural selection, by which a species or individual becomes better able to function in its environment.
b. A structure or habit that results from this process.
3. Physiology The responsive adjustment of a sense organ, such as the eye, to varying conditions, such as light intensity.
4. Change in behavior of a person or group in response to new or modified surroundings.

ad′ap·ta′tion·al adj.
ad′ap·ta′tion·al·ly adv.

adaptation

Cell biology
The constellation of processes by which an organism adjusts to a new or altered environment in response to stress and increased physiologic demands.
 
Dentistry 
(1) The proper fitting of a denture.
(2) The degree of proximity and interlocking of restorative material to a tooth ‘prep’.
 
Evolutionary biology
A phenotypic feature which improves the reproductive success of a species.

Microbiology
The adjustment of bacteria to a new or altered environment.

Molecular biology
The change in the response of a subcellular system over time; functional or structural changes that allow an organism to respond to changes in the environment; the ability to physiologically adjust to a new environment—typically, cells de-adapt when transferred to different growth conditions.

Ophthalmology
The ability of the eye to adjust to variations in light intensity.
 
Orthodontics
An adjustment of corrective bands resulting in a shifting of the teeth.
 
Physiology
A reduction in the frequency of neuronal firing under conditions of constant stimulation.

adaptation

Opthalmology The ability of the eye to adjust to variations in light intensity Psychology The fitting of behavior to the environment by modifying one's impulses, emotions, or attitudes. See Social adaptation.

ad·ap·ta·tion

(ad'ap-tā'shŭn)
1. Preferential survival of members of a species because of a phenotype that gives them an enhanced capacity to withstand the environment.
2. An advantageous change in function or constitution of an organ or tissue to meet new conditions.
3. Adjustment of the sensitivity of the retina to light intensity.
4. A property of certain sensory receptors that modifies the response to repeated or continued stimuli at constant intensity.
5. dentistry The fitting, condensing, or contouring of a restorative material, foil, or shell to a tooth or cast so as to ensure close contact.
6. The dynamic process wherein the thoughts, feelings, behavior, and biophysiologic mechanisms of a person continually change to adjust to a constantly changing environment.
7. A homeostatic response.
8. occupational therapy the ability to anticipate, correct for, and benefit by learning from the consquences of errors that arise during task performances.
[L. ad-apto, pp. -atus, to adjust]

adaptation

1. Adjustment of sensitivity, usually in the direction of reduction, as a result of repeated stimulation.
2. The adjustment of an organism, including man, in part or in whole, to changes in environment or to external stress. Adaptation is an essential feature of all living things and the likelihood of survival often depends on how effectively it operates.

adaptation 

1. Process by which a sensory organ (e.g. the eye) adjusts to its environment (e.g. to luminance, colour or contact lens wear).
2. The reduction in sensitivity to continuous sensory stimulation. The neurophysiological correlate corresponds to a decrease in the frequency of action potentials fired by a neuron, despite a stimulus of constant magnitude. Visual adaptation is prevented from occurring by the continuous involuntary movements of the eyes. See fixation movements; action potential; stabilized retinal image.
chromatic adaptation Apparent changes in hue and saturation after prolonged exposure to a field of a specific colour.
dark adaptation Adjustment of the eye (particularly regeneration of visual pigments and dilatation of the pupil), such that, after observation in the dark, the sensitivity to light is greatly increased, i.e. the threshold response to light is decreased. This is a much slower process than light adaptation. Older people usually take longer to adapt to darkness and only reach a higher threshold than young people. See adaptometer; hemeralopia; visual pigment; duplicity theory.
light adaptation Adjustment of the eye (particularly bleaching of visual pigments and constriction of the pupil), such that, after observation of a bright field, the sensitivity to light is diminished, i.e. the threshold of luminance is increased. See duplicity theory.
prism adaptation See vergence adaptation.
sensory adaptation Mechanism by which the visual system adjusts to avoid confusion and diplopia of the perceptual impression due to an abnormal motor condition (e.g. strabismus).
vergence adaptation A process by which the eyes return to their condition of habitual heterophoria or orthophoria after a heterophoria has been induced by prisms (prism adaptation) in front of one or both eyes (as, for example, when lens centration does not coincide with the interpupillary distance), or by spherical lenses, or due to changes in the orbital contents with increasing age. This adaptation process may be related to the phenomenon of orthophorization. People who have symptomatic binocular vision anomalies do not, or only partially, show vergence adaptation to prisms. Vergence adaptation decreases with increasing age.

ad·ap·ta·tion

(ad'ap-tā'shŭn) Avoid the incorrect form adaption.
1. The fitting, condensing, or contouring of a restorative material, foil, or shell to a tooth or cast to ensure close contact.
2. Alignment of an instrument against a tooth before activation of an exploratory or working stroke.
3. An advantageous change in function or constitution of an organ or tissue to meet new conditions.
4. A homeostatic response.
[L. ad-apto, pp. -atus, to adjust]
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