acute phase response


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response

 [re-spons´]
any action or change of condition evoked by a stimulus.
acute phase response a group of physiologic processes occurring soon after the onset of infection, trauma, inflammatory processes, and some malignant conditions. The most prominent change is a dramatic increase of acute phase proteins in the serum, especially C-reactive protein. Also seen are fever, increased vascular permeability, and a variety of metabolic and pathologic changes.
anamnestic response the rapid reappearance of antibody in the blood following introduction of an antigen to which the subject had previously developed a primary immune response.
auditory brainstem response ABR; a special hearing test that tracks the nerve signals arising in the inner ear as they travel along the auditory nerve to the brain region responsible for hearing. A small speaker placed near the ear makes a clicking sound, and special electrodes record the nerve signal as it travels. The test can determine where along the nerve there is a lesion responsible for sensorineural hearing loss. It is often used for individuals with such loss in just one ear; this is often caused by a benign tumor along the auditory nerve, but if the ABR reading is normal in a given region, the chances of there being a tumor there are small. This test can also be used on infants since it requires no conscious response from the person being tested.
autoimmune response the immune response in which antibodies or immune lymphoid cells are produced against the body's own tissues. See also autoimmune disease.
conditioned response see conditioned response.
dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response a nursing diagnosis adopted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as inability of a patient to adjust to lowered levels of mechanical ventilator support, which interrupts and prolongs the process of weaning. See also mechanical ventilatory weaning.
galvanic skin response the alteration in the electrical resistance of the skin associated with sympathetic nerve discharge.
immune response see immune response.
inflammatory response the various changes that tissue undergoes when it becomes inflamed; see inflammation.
post-trauma response former name for the nursing diagnosis post-trauma syndrome.
reticulocyte response increase in the formation of reticulocytes in response to a bone marrow stimulus.
triple response (of Lewis) a physiologic reaction of the skin to stroking with a blunt instrument: first a red line develops at the site of stroking, owing to the release of histamine or a histamine-like substance, then a flare develops around the red line, and lastly a wheal is formed as a result of local edema.
unconditioned response an unlearned response, i.e., one that occurs naturally, in contrast to a conditioned response.

a·cute phase re·ac·tion

to the changes in synthesis of certain proteins within the serum during an inflammatory response; this response provides rapid protection for the host against microorganisms through nonspecific defense mechanisms.

Acute Phase Response

A constellation of nonspecific host responses to cytokines* released in response to tissue injury, infection, inflammation and rarely malignancy—e.g., Hodgkin lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma—which causes functional liver changes—increased synthesis of acute phase proteins (endocrine system), abnormal glucose tolerance, increased gluconeogenesis, thyroid dysfunction, altered lipid metabolism (immune system), left shift leukocytosis, hypergammaglobulinaemia (metabolic system), decreased albumin synthesis, energy consumption, increased ceruloplasmin, reduced iron and zinc levels, and CNS (lethargy); the most measured molecule in the response is the highly nonspecific CRP, which may increase 10- to 1000-fold within hours from a normal level of 100 µg/L.
*Biological response modifiers—e.g., IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta-1, and interferons; intercellular communication is mediated by either direct cell-to-cell contact, or by soluble signalling molecules including hormones, eicosanoids, neurotransmitters, and to cytokines, which may play the most central role in inducing the APR; other molecules involved in the APR include corticosteroids, insulin, thrombin, histamine, and others; screening tests for the APR include erythrocyte sedimentation rate, plasma viscosity, and zeta sedimentation ratio.

acute phase response

A constellation of nonspecific host responses to cytokines released in response to tissue injury, infection, inflammation and rarely malignancy–eg, Hodgkin's disease, renal cell CA, and causes functional liver changes–↑ synthesis of acute phase proteins, endocrine system–abnormal glucose tolerance, ↑ gluconeogenesis, thyroid dysfunction, altered lipid metabolism, immune system–left shift leukocytosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, metabolic system–↓ albumin synthesis, energy consumption, ↑ ceruloplasmin, ↓ iron and zinc levels, and CNS–lethargy; the most measured molecule in the response is the highly nonspecific CRP, which may ↑ 10- to 1000-fold within hrs from a normal of 100 µg/L

a·cute phase re·ac·tion

(ă-kyūt' fāz rē-ak'shŭn)
Refers to the changes in synthesis on certain proteins within the serum during an inflammatory response; this response provides rapid protection for the host against microorganisms via nonspecific defense mechanisms.
Synonym(s): acute phase response.
References in periodicals archive ?
Previous studies have established that hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and biliary excretion is altered in mice undergoing an acute phase response [14, 15].
Elevated circulating interleukin-6 is associated with an acute phase response, but reduced fixed hepatic protein synthesis in patients with cancer.
Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O.
Both tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and antithrombin (AT) are "negative acute phase response proteins" (meaning their synthesis and secretion is reduced during the acute phase response).
Strenuous exercise: analogous to the acute phase response? Clin Sci (Lond) 1991;81:677-83.
However, when the acute phase response is chronically activated, it can be harmful.
Patients with infection plus non-infective inflammation and/or tissue damage expected to provoke an acute phase response such as myocardial infarction, malignancy and trauma.
Acute phase response to different positions of high-goal (Elite) Polo Ponies.
The primary pro-inflammatory cytokines such as CD-40 influence the expression of messenger cytokines such as interleukin-6, which travel from local sites of inflammation to the liver where a change in the programme of protein synthesis of the acute phase response occur.
Serum paraoxonase : Effect of the apolipoprotein composition of HDL and the acute phase response. J Lipid Res 2003;44:780-92.
An acute phase response will feature elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein levels.

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