acute myeloid leukaemia


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Related to acute myeloid leukaemia: Chronic myeloid leukaemia, Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

acute myeloid leukaemia

A rapidly progressing form of leukaemia characterised by the proliferation of immature WBCs (blasts in peripheral circulation).
 
Epidemiology
Primarily in adults or infants under age 1; 2,000 new cases are diagnosed/year, UK.
 
Clinical findings
Fatigue, weight-loss, fever, weakness, pallor, bone and joint pain, bleeding gums, nosebleeds, bruising, lymphadenopathy.
 
Complications
Bleeding, increased infections.
 
Management
Chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.

FAB classification, acute leukaemias
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) 
M0—Myeloblasts with minimal differentiation.
M1—Myeloblasts without maturation.
M2—Myeloblasts with maturation (best AML prognosis).
M3—Hypergranular promyelocytic leukaemia (faggot cells).
M3V—Variant, microgranular promyelocytic leukaemia.
M4—Myelomonocytic leukocytes.
M5—Monocytic, subtype: 
  a. Poorly differentiated monocytic leukaemia. 
  b. Well-differentiated monocytic leukaemia.
M6—Erythroleukaemia/DiGuglielmo syndrome.
M7—Megakaryocytic leukaemia—pleomorphic undifferentiated cells with cytoplasmic blebs; myelofibrosis or increased marrow reticulin; positive for platelet peroxidase antifactor VIII. 

WHO classification
AML with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities.
AML with multi-lineage dysplasia (as a precursor to myelodysplastic syndrome).
AML related to therapy.
AML NOS.

AML variants
AML with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities.
AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22).
AML with inv(16)(p13q22).
AML with t(15;17)(q22;q12).
AML with 11q23 (MLL) abnormalities.
AML with multilineage dysplasia.
AML (and MDS), therapy-related:
• Alkylating agent related;
• Topoisomerase-II inhibitor related.
AML, not otherwise categorised.

acute myeloid leukaemia

A form of LEUKAEMIA in which the cells present in abnormal numbers are derived from primitive precursors, in the bone marrow, of the white blood cells. The median age of presentation is 70. Genetic defects and age-related factors are thought to be the principal determinants of lack of success of chemotherapy in elderly patients.
References in periodicals archive ?
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. Book Editor(s): A Victor Hoffbrand, Douglas R Higgs, David M Keeling, Atul B Mehta.
Conclusion: Acute myeloid leukaemia was found to be a highly variable disease that presented with non-specific signs and symptoms.
Results: During the selected study duration acute myeloid leukaemia was diagnosed in 173 patients on bone marrow examination.
Nina, who was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia on Jordan's birthday, has finished treatment and is in her second year studying biomedical science at Northumbria University.
Mike Hobday, head of campaigns at Macmillan Cancer Support, said: "We are extremely disappointed Nice has rejected the only drug available proven to give patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia more time and a better quality of life.
Now Louis has acute myeloid leukaemia, which affects only 50 children a year in Britain.
Annwen, a nurse at Ysbyty Gwynedd, Bangor, was diagnosed in 1997 with a bone marrow disorder which developed into acute myeloid leukaemia.
(Boston, USA); -- E21R: currently in Phase II in acute myeloid leukaemia. British Biotech was granted exclusive worldwide development and commercialization rights in December 2000 under an agreement with BresaGen Ltd (Adelaide, Australia); -- MG98: currently in Phase II trials in various cancers.
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a group of haematological malignant disorders.
M2 PHARMA-August 8, 2017-Selvita partners with Leukaemia & Lymphoma Society to develop therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia
Vormoor et al., "A cell initiating human acute myeloid leukaemia after transplantation into SCID mice," Nature, vol.
CEBPA double-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia harbours concomitant molecular mutations in 76*8% of cases with TET2 and GATA2 alterations impacting prognosis.

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