acute lung injury
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Related to acute lung injury: acute respiratory distress syndrome, Transfusion related acute lung injury
adult respiratory distress syndromeA condition due to a diffuse infiltrative process in the lungs, which affects ±150,000/year (US), and is characterised by acute pulmonary oedema and respiratory failure, poor oxygenation, increased functional residual capacity and decreased compliance; ARDS may accompany various medical and surgical conditions, and may be associated with interstitial pneumonitis—usual, desquamative and lymphoid types.
Gram-negative sepsis, pneumonia, shock, gastric acid aspiration, trauma, drug overdose, toxic gas (chlorine, NO2, smoke) exposure, severe metabolic derangement, pancreatitis.
A 6–24-hour latency period is followed by hypoxia, decreased aeration, dyspnoea, severe SOB and “stiff” lungs—i.e., decreased pulmonary compliance.
Extensive, diffuse bilateral fluffy infiltrates.
Nitric oxide (NO), 18 ppm, may reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure; 37 to 30 mm Hg, may reduce intrapulmonary shunting (36% to 31%), increase ratio of partial pressure of arterial O2 to inspired O2 (PaO2/FiO2), an index of arterial oxygenation efficiency (±152 to ±199); other management strategies include PEEP.
The outcome of ARDS is a function of underlying cause.
± 60%, the cause of death has shifted from hypoxia to multiple organ failure.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
a·cute lung in·ju·ry(ă-kyūt' lŭng in'jŭr-ē)
Any acute decline in lung function of sudden onset, whether traumatic or related to disease state; may be life threatening.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
acute lung injuryAbbreviation: ALI.
A clinically severe, sudden decline in lung function, marked by infiltrates in both lung fields and significantly diminished arterial oxygen saturation. There is no evidence that the condition is caused by left-sided heart failure. The disease is similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Like ARDS, ALI may be life threatening. ALI is distinguished from ARDS by the severity of hypoxemia. ALI = PaO2/FIO2 ratio of < 300, ARDS = PaO2/FIO2 < 200.
See also: injury
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners