acute hydrocephalus

acute hydrocephalus

A disturbance of formation, flow, or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that leads to increased fluid volume in the central nervous system, which develops over a period of a few days.

Clinical findings
Headache, nausea, vomiting, papilloedema, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, and coma which, if untreated, may lead to uncal and/or cerebellar tonsillar herniation and death.

Management
Cerebral shunting of CSF to other body cavities for absorption—e.g.,ventriculo-peritoneal, ventriculo-atrial shunt or ventriculo-pleural shunt.
References in periodicals archive ?
The topics include managing acute hydrocephalus, chemical thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, summary and synopsis of the Brain Trauma Foundation Head Injury Guidelines, athletic injuries and their differential diagnosis, penetrating injuries of peripheral nerves, and the perinatal management of a child born with a myelomeningocele.
A simultaneous blockage of CSF flow and influx of a new volume of CSF (as in IVH) can lead to an increase of CSF pressure and development of the transmantle pressure gradient causing an acute hydrocephalus, which was the case in our two patients (6).
Acute hydrocephalus was immediately treated by insertion of an external ventricular drain and later by insertion of a shunt.
A brain CT revealed a new IVH, acute hydrocephalus, and a peculiar finding resembling intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at the right hippocampus [Figure 3]b.
Obstruction at the foramina of Monro can lead to acute hydrocephalus and tonsillar herniation, resulting in sudden death.
Sudden deaths associated with acute hydrocephalus or cardiovascular failure due to abrupt disturbance in hypothalamic function have also been described [24,7,8].
However after 2 and half months she presented with acute hydrocephalus.
Lateral and third ventricle dilation, consistent with acute hydrocephalus, was noted (Figure 1, panel B).
The authors report the first known case Foix-Chavany-Marie Syndrome immediately after development of symptomatic acute hydrocephalus that reversed slowly after ventriculoperitoneal shunting.
The intracranial pressure rose as the swelling blocked the flow of CSF resulting in acute hydrocephalus and coma.
4) MRI findings consistent with hydrocephalus in small animal patients include ventriculomegaly, ventricular asymmetry, subarachnoid space dilatation, and, in cases of acute hydrocephalus, periventricular edema.
Severe adherence is related to age, poor neurological status, vasospasm, presence of acute hydrocephalus, CSF infections, necessity of EVD, rebleeding and most importantly intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (3).

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