acute hydrocephalus

acute hydrocephalus

A disturbance of formation, flow, or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that leads to increased fluid volume in the central nervous system, which develops over a period of a few days.

Clinical findings
Headache, nausea, vomiting, papilloedema, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, and coma which, if untreated, may lead to uncal and/or cerebellar tonsillar herniation and death.

Management
Cerebral shunting of CSF to other body cavities for absorption—e.g.,ventriculo-peritoneal, ventriculo-atrial shunt or ventriculo-pleural shunt.
References in periodicals archive ?
[16, 25] Complications arise due to intracranial haemorrhage, brainstem compression, acute hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure.
Compared with patients with CPP or aCPP, patients with CPC had a shorter disease course (median: CPP, 4 months; aCPP, 2 months; CPC, 1 month; H: 23.5, P < 0.001), higher rate of acute hydrocephalus (CPP, 27.1%; aCPP, 52.9%; CPC, 77.8%; ?2 = 10.9, P < 0.05), and lower incidence of cure rate (CPP, 85.7%; aCPP, 70.5%; CPC, 33.3%; ?2 = 13.5, P < 0.05).
Acute hydrocephalus associated with aqueduct obstruction is a major complication in cerebellar stroke syndromes that should be kept in mind among physicians because early and appropriate interventions can be lifesaving.
The topics include managing acute hydrocephalus, chemical thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, summary and synopsis of the Brain Trauma Foundation Head Injury Guidelines, athletic injuries and their differential diagnosis, penetrating injuries of peripheral nerves, and the perinatal management of a child born with a myelomeningocele.
On day 16, the patient suddenly exhibited impaired consciousness; head computed tomography (CT) showed ventricular enlargement, and she was therefore diagnosed with acute hydrocephalus (Figure 2).
Despite the lack of evidence of acute hydrocephalus, intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored by intraventricular catheter and remained within the normal range during the whole ICU stay.
Jankowski et al., "HMGB1 Level in Cerebrospinal Fluid as a Marker of Treatment Outcome in Patients with Acute Hydrocephalus Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage," Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol.
DTI studies in acute hydrocephalus patients revealed increased FA in the WM areas lateral to the ventricles, which recovered after surgery, suggesting white matter compression as the possible cause of this observed change, and decreased FA in the corpus callosum, with no changes after surgery, suggesting that the corpus callosum may be easier to undergo neuronal degeneration [32].
A 39-year-old woman was admitted comatose, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8/15, to the intensive care unit (ICU), and brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a Fisher grade 4 subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with acute hydrocephalus. Cerebral angiography demonstrated an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.
The symptoms may be intermittent, self-limiting, and nonspecifically apparent when the foramen of Monro is blocked temporarily by pendulous movement of the cyst or may be acute and severe presenting with acute hydrocephalus, brain herniation, and sudden death.
A simultaneous blockage of CSF flow and influx of a new volume of CSF (as in IVH) can lead to an increase of CSF pressure and development of the transmantle pressure gradient causing an acute hydrocephalus, which was the case in our two patients (6).

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