acute hepatitis

acute hepatitis

Liver inflammation of abrupt onset.
Autoimmune, drugs, idiopathic (up to 70% in some services), toxins, viral (HAV, HBV, HCV, HEV).
Clinical findings
Low-grade fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, malaise, headache, photophobia, pharyngitis, cough; later, dark urine, light stool, jaundice, hepatomegaly, ± splenomegaly, ± lymphadenopathy.
Liver biopsy; increased transaminases (ALT, AST); increased virus-specific IgG or IgM.

Acute hepatitis, differential diagnosis
Perivenular ballooning with neutrophils, Mallory bodies, steatosis, fibrosis.

Biliary disease
No lobular disease, ± granulomas, minimal cholestasis, duct proliferation, ± ductopaenia, copper-binding protein (black dots with orcein; blue with Victoria blue).

Chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis
Fibrosis vs necrosis.

Minimal portal-tract inflammation (neutrophils, eosinophils, granulomas), bile duct damage with certain agents (paraquat, floxacillin).

• EBV—minimal liver damage, atypical lymphocytes in sinusoids, portal tracts.
• CMV/HSV—confluent necrosis, scattered lymphocytes in sinusoids, viral inclusions.

acute hepatitis

Clinical medicine Liver inflammation of abrupt onset, which may be due to a viral infection–eg HAV or toxins Clinical Low-grade fever, anorexia, N&V, fatigue, malaise, headache, photophobia, pharyngitis, cough; later, dark urine, light stool, jaundice, hepatomegaly, ± splenomegaly, ± lymphadenopathy Diagnosis Liver biopsy; ↑ transaminases–ALT, AST, ↑ virus-specific IgG or IgM Pathology Diffuse lymphocytic and plasmacytic inflammation, patchy–piecemeal necrosis, and liver cell degeneration in the form of either lytic–ballooning or coagulative–acidophilic degeneration; AH may be accompanied by a collapse of the central reticulin fibers surrounding the hepatocytes; activated Kupffer cells may be filled with phagocytic debris. Cf Chronic hepatitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Louisville Metro Department of Public Health and Wellness continues to work to control an outbreak of acute hepatitis A that has centered in the citys homeless and among those who use illicit drugs.
23 Parkash studied the correlation of acute hepatitis with dengue outcome in Karachi, Pakistan and in his study median ALT was 88.
Dr Junaid Saleem said that acute Hepatitis is caused by two viruses, namely Hepatitis A and E.
HEV3 infections are generally asymptomatic and self-limiting, but symptomatic acute hepatitis develops in some patients, mostly older men.
Caption: Acute hepatitis C infection incidence rates, 2015: State vs.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most frequent cause of acute hepatitis and has become an important public health concern in many developing countries.
Dr Jennifer Harb, of the university's college of medicine, said: "Only one other case report has documented acute hepatitis from over-consumption of energy drinks.
In serological study conducted among 698 clinically diagnosed acute hepatitis patients who had considerably elevated ALT values, it was found that 33% were positive for IgM HAV antibodies, 8.
It is also much more common for Hepatitis C to progress to a chronic condition from an acute one, meaning that the infected patient could suffer from the disease long term - most who only suffer from acute Hepatitis recover with no long term liver damage.
Notes from the field: acute hepatitis and liver failure following the use of a dietary supplement intended for weight loss or muscle building--May-October 2013.
Third, because acute hepatitis C incidence by state and county were calculated from passive and voluntary case reporting to NNDSS, these data should not be interpreted as definitive state and county incidence estimates.

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