acute heart failure


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Related to acute heart failure: acute congestive heart failure

acute heart failure

A rapid decline in heart function that requires emergency medical care, including immediate hospitalisation and IV drugs to decreased vascular resistance, stabilising the heart, improving circulation, strengthening the heart pump and restoring normal breathing.
 
AHF is the clinical end-stage of 2 different situations:
(1) heart failure in a previously asymptomatic patient hospitalised for severe, life-threatening pulmonary oedema and/or cardiogenic shock due to a sudden injury/event (e.g., acute MI); or
(2) more commonly (up to 90%), so-called acute heart failure occurs in patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure, which may or may not have been previously diagnosed.

Acute Heart Failure

Cardiology A rapid, high-risk decline in heart function that requires emergency medical care, including immediate hospitalization and IV drugs to decrease vascular resistance, stabilize the heart, improve circulation, strengthen the heart pump and restore normal breathing. AHF is the clinical end-stage of 2 different situations: (1) heart failure in a previously asymptomatic patient hospitalised for severe, life-threatening pulmonary oedema and/or cardiogenic shock due to a sudden injury/event—e.g., acute MI; (2) more commonly—up to 90% of so-called AHFs occur in patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure, which may or may not have been previously diagnosed.

heart failure

inability of the heart to maintain a circulation sufficient to meet the body's needs; most often applied to myocardial failure affecting the right or left ventricle.

acute heart failure
sudden cardiac arrest such as occurs in anesthetic death and cardiac myopathy of various kinds. It causes death by acute anoxia of tissues especially brain. The clinical syndrome varies between a brief convulsion and the development of pulmonary edema.
backward heart failure
a concept of heart failure emphasizing the contribution of passive engorgement of the systemic venous system as a cause.
congestive heart failure (CHF)
that which occurs as a result of impaired pumping capability of the heart and is associated with abnormal retention of water and sodium. The condition ranges from mild congestion with few symptoms to life-threatening fluid overload and total heart failure.
CHF results in an inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to the body's cells. The decreased cardiac output causes an increase in the blood volume within the vascular system. Congestion within the blood vessels interferes with the movement of body fluids in and out of the various fluid compartments, and they accumulate in the tissue spaces, causing edema.
There are three general kinds of pathological conditions that can bring about CHF: (1) ventricular failure, in which the contractions of the ventricles become weak and ineffective, as in myocardial ischemia from coronary artery disease; (2) mechanical failure of the ventricles to fill with blood during the diastole phase of the cardiac cycle, which can occur when the mitral valve is narrowed or when there is an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac (cardiac tamponade) pressing against the ventricles, preventing them from accepting a full load of blood; and (3) an overload of blood in the ventricles during the systole phase of the cycle. High blood pressure, aortic stenosis and aortic valvular regurgitation are some of the conditions that can cause ventricular overload.
decompensated heart failure
see congestive heart failure (above).
forward heart failure
a concept of heart failure emphasizing the inadequacy of cardiac output as the primary cause and considering venous distention to be secondary.
high output heart failure
that in which cardiac output remains high, associated with anemia, emphysema, etc.
left-sided heart failure, left ventricular heart failure
failure of the left ventricle to maintain a normal output of blood. Since the left ventricle does not empty completely, it cannot accept blood returning from the lungs via the pulmonary veins. The pulmonary veins become engorged and fluid seeps out through the veins and collects in the pleural cavity. Pulmonary edema and pleural effusion result. In many cases heart failure begins on the left side and eventually involves both sides of the heart.
low-output heart failure
that in which cardiac output is diminished, associated with cardiovascular diseases.
right-sided heart failure, right ventricular heart failure
failure of proper functioning of the right ventricle, with subsequent engorgement of the systemic veins, producing pitting edema, enlargement of the liver, and ascites.
References in periodicals archive ?
In-hospital short-term effects, including major bleeding, acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock and arrhythmias, were higher in acute kidney injury patients.
Acute heart failure syndromes: Emergency department presentation, treatment, and disposition: Current approaches and future aims: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
Patients who are admitted with acute heart failure and require vasoactive drugs for low blood pressure have a poor outcome as compared to the rest In the ADHERE trial mortality was 12 to 13% for patients who required ionotropic treatment4.
7% of deaths due to acute heart failure occurred in patients younger than 1 year of age [4, 20].
Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, galectin-3, and apelin for the evaluation of patients with acute heart failure.
In this case, a previously healthy young woman developed uncompensated acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema in the early postpartum period after caesarean delivery.
5 billion in 2006 while sales of drugs to treat acute heart failure reached over $350 million in 2007.
Mr Dutch died in his sleep of acute heart failure while on holiday in Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, on Sunday, February 10.
Abiomed announced that it has continued to invest in its sales, clinical, marketing and field service teams in Europe, now totaling over 30 individuals, to promote recovery for acute heart failure patients and increase revenue growth.
Pathologist Dr Andrew Dalton said Mrs Hegginbotham, of Redditch, Stockport, died of acute heart failure - sparked by the accident - due to underlying severe heart disease.
Mr Oliver, 74, of South Road, Norton, underwent the operation at the University Hospital of North Tees on November 30 last year, but suffered acute heart failure moments afterwards and he died on December 15, the hearing in Middlesbrough heard.
Tara, an African elephant who had lived at the Los Angeles Zoo since 1966, died of acute heart failure, according to preliminary results of a necropsy, zoo officials said Wednesday.

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