acute graft versus host disease


Also found in: Acronyms.

acute graft versus host disease

A distinctive syndrome of dermatitis, hepatitis, and enteritis developing within 100 days of allogeneic haematopoietic (stem) cell transplantation. Acute GVHD occurs in up to 2/3 of HLA-identical siblings and is increasingly common as HLA mismatching increases, and occurs in 80% of marrow recipients.
 
Clinical findings
• Hyperacute GVHD—fever, generalised erythroderma, desquamation with 2 weeks of transplantation.
• Acute GVHD—pruritic or painful rash, elevated liver enzymes with cholestatic jaundice; GI tract involvement is associated with diarrhoea, bleeding, painful bloating, and ileus.

Complications
Acute GVHD carries an increased risk of pneumonia and sterile effusions, hemorrhagic cystitis, thrombocytopenia, and anaemia.
 
Diagnosis
Lab—autoimmune cytopaenias, increased alkaline phosphatase, cholestasis, hypoalbuminaemia due to GVHD-associated leakage of protein into the gut, negative nitrogen balance, electrolyte imbalance due to diarrhoea.

Management
Primary prophylaxis with cyclosporin A (CSA), methotrexate, antithymocyte globulin (ATG). If Acute GVHD develops, corticosteroids, increase dose of CSA, add tacrolimus, ATG, and various monoclonal antibodies—none of which have proven clearly superior.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The primary end points include acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) during the first 100 days and safety.
MELBOURNE, Australia, March 28, 2018 -- Cynata Therapeutics Limited (ASX:CYP) announced that the FDA has granted Orphan Drug Designation to its treatment of acute graft versus host disease (GvHD).
MELBOURNE, Australia, March 28, 2018 -- Cynata Therapeutics Limited (ASX:CYP) announced that the FDA has granted Orphan Drug Designation to CYP-001, a treatment of acute graft versus host disease (GvHD).
The risk of developing grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) increased from 38% in the children receiving standard cyclosporine doses to 57% in those given the lower dose of the drug.
Participants in the trial ("An Open-Label Phase 1 Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of CYP-001 for the Treatment of Adults With Steroid-Resistant Acute Graft Versus Host Disease") must be adults who have undergone an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) to treat a hematological (blood) disorder and have subsequently been diagnosed with steroid -resistant Grade II-IV GvHD.
NEW YORK, N.Y., November 14, 2016 -- Mesoblast Limited (MESO) announced that the Phase 3 trial of its intravenous product candidate MSC-100-IV used as front-line therapy in children with steroid-resistant acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) had been successful in a pre-specified interim futility analysis.
The study will also evaluate the safety and tolerability of BL-8040 in healthy donors, as well as graft durability, the incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft versus host disease (GvHD), and other recipient related parameters in patients who have undergone transplantation of hematopoietic cells mobilized with BL-8040.
MELBOURNE, Australia, February 22, 2016 -- Mesoblast Limited (MESO) said study results presented at two scientific meetings in Hawaii showed that use of its proprietary Tier 1 mesenchymal stem cell product candidate remestemcel-L (MSC-100-IV) demonstrated clinically meaningful responses and significantly increased survival in children with steroid-refractory acute Graft Versus Host Disease (aGvHD).
MELBOURNE, Australia, March 7, 2016 -- Mesoblast Limited (MESO) said study results presented at two scientific meetings in Hawaii showed that use of its proprietary Tier 1 mesenchymal stem cell product candidate remestemcel-L (MSC-100-IV) demonstrated clinically meaningful responses and significantly increased survival in children with steroid-refractory acute Graft Versus Host Disease (aGvHD).
Ltd., a licensee of Australia's Mesoblast Limited (MESO), has launched the mesenchymal stem cell product TEMCELLfor the treatment of acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) in children and adults in Japan.
JR-031 is a treatment for acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), a severe complication arising from hematopoietic cell transplants.

Full browser ?