acute disseminated encephalomyelitis


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Related to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis

encephalomyelitis

 [en-sef″ah-lo-mi″ĕ-li´tis]
inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis an acute or subacute encephalomyelitis or myelitis occurring most commonly following an acute viral infection, especially measles, but sometimes occurring without a recognizable antecedent. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, vomiting, and drowsiness progressing to lethargy and coma; tremor, seizures, and paralysis may also occur. Mortality ranges from 5 to 20 per cent, and many survivors have residual neurologic deficits.
benign myalgic encephalomyelitis chronic fatigue syndrome.
equine encephalomyelitis a type of encephalomyelitis in horses and mules, caused by an alphavirus and spread to humans by mosquitoes; it occurs in summer epizootics in the Western Hemisphere. Three forms are recognized: eastern, western, and Venezuelan. Called also equine encephalitis.
equine encephalomyelitis, eastern a viral disease similar to western equine encephalomyelitis, but occurring in a region extending from New Hampshire to Texas and as far west as Wisconsin, and in Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and parts of Central and South America.
equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan a viral disease of horses and mules, transmissible to humans; the causative agent was first isolated in Venezuela. The infection in humans resembles influenza, with little or no indication of nervous system involvement.
equine encephalomyelitis, western a viral disease of horses and mules, communicable to humans, occurring chiefly as a meningoencephalitis with little involvement of the medulla oblongata or spinal cord; observed in the United States chiefly west of the Mississippi River.
granulomatous encephalomyelitis a disease marked by granulomas and necrosis of the walls of the cerebral and spinal ventricles.
postinfectious encephalomyelitis (postvaccinal encephalomyelitis) acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

a·cute dis·sem·i·nat·ed en·ceph·a·lo·my·e·li·tis

an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system in which focal demyelination is present throughout the brain and spinal cord. This process is common to postinfectious, postexanthem, and postvaccinal encephalomyelitis.

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

An acute encephalopathy which usually follows viral infection (1:1,000 cases of measles), bacterial or parasitic infections, or rarely vaccinations (1:106 measles vaccinations) and which is characterised by autoimmune demyelination involving the entire brain, especially the subcortical and central white matter and cortical gray-white junction and spinal cord or may focally affect a nerve or cord root, and is regarded by some as a multiple sclerosis borderline disease.
Epidemiology Affects 8/106/year, primarily children.
Clinical finding Meningial signs and, if serious, coma and death. Treatment None
Mortality & morbidity 5% mortality; up to 75% recover completely and the rest have only minor residual defects.

a·cute dis·sem·i·nat·ed en·ceph·a·lo·my·e·li·tis

(ă-kyūt' di-sem'i-nā-tĕd en-sef'a-lō-mī'ĕ-lī'tis)
An acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system in which focal demyelination is present throughout the brain and spinal cord. This process is common to postinfectious, postexanthem, and postvaccinal encephalomyelitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in 228 patients: A retrospective multicenter US study.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disorder with pathophysiology not fully understood however the most accepted etiology is an autoimmune response to myelin basic protein activated by infectious or vaccination agent1-3.
(32.) Gupte G, Stonehouse M, Wassmer E, Coad NA, Whitehouse WP Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: A review of 18 cases in childhood.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Because of possible acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), pulse steroid treatment was started (30 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone) on the first day at our hospital, but on the second day steroid was switched to intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg) 0.4 gr/kg/day for 5 days because acute viral encephalitis could not be ruled out.
Differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive neurological deficit with ring-enhancing lesions include brain abscess, primary brain neoplasm or brain metastasis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and tumefactive multiple sclerosis.
HIV-associated neuro-cognitive disorder EBV: primary CNS lym-phoma JC virus: PML [not equal to] Prions: spongiform ence- phalopathy Spinal Acute viral HIV-1 vacuolar cord myelitis myelopathy ADEM * HTLV-1 myelopathy * Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [dagger] Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis [not equal to] Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy.
Several different hypotheses have been suggested, including localised cerebral oedema, autoimmune vasculitis, toxic effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and an immunopathological basis similar to relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (6) In retrospect, the atypical features of rapid progression and motor involvement could have indicated HE at an earlier stage of illness.
This edition incorporates a new section on neurodevelopmental and learning disorders, and new chapters on neuropsychological interventions, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and childhood multiple sclerosis, tuberous sclerosis complex, perinatal stroke, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
These include epilepsy, anticonvulsant therapy, mild encephalitis, ischaemia and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) as the more common aetiologies causing reversible lesions.

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