acute chest syndrome

a·cute chest syn·drome

a syndrome occurring in association with sickle cell disease defined by a new infiltrate on chest radiograph; associated with one or more new symptoms: fever, cough, sputum production, dyspnea, or hypoxia. It occurs most commonly in the 2-4-year-old age group and declines in incidence with age. A past history of this finding is associated with earlier mortality compared with those patients who have never experienced an episode.

acute chest syndrome

A condition seen in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), which is the most common cause for hospitalisation in SCA in children and caused by vascular occlusion and/or infection. It is clinically defined as any new infiltrate in an SCA patient, associated with one or more new symptoms—e.g., fever, cough, sputum production, dyspnoea, or hypoxia. Acute chest syndrome can occur in any haemoglobinopathy—e.g., Hb SS, Hb SC, Hb S ß+-thalassemia, Hb S ß0-thalassemia, etc.

Clinical findings
In children: fever, tachycardia, chest pain, leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates.

Aetiology of acute chest syndrome in patients with sickling haemoglobins
Pulmonary infarction—in situ sickling, fat embolism syndrome, hypoventilation secondary to rib/sternal bone infarction, hypoventilation secondary to narcotic administration, pulmonary oedema induced by narcotics or fluid overload.

acute chest syndrome

Hematology A complex seen in Pts with sickle cell anemia–SCA Clinical Fever, tachycardia, chest pain, leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates; it is the most common cause for hospitalization in SCA and is due to vascular occlusion and/or infection; in children, ACS is often due to bacterial pneumonia, especially.S pneumoniae–preventable by pneumococcal vaccine, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and others. See Sickle cell anemia.

acute chest syndrome

A complication of sickle cell disease resulting from vascular occlusion or infection in the lungs and marked by chest pain, tachypnea, fever, rales and rhonchi, leukocytosis, and lobar consolidation.
References in periodicals archive ?
The use of hydroxyurea, the only approved therapy for SCD, has significantly decreased the frequency and severity of pain crises and of the lethal acute chest syndrome, resulting in greater survival.
The misshapen sickle cells clog smaller blood vessels, result in excruciating pain and put patients at an increased risk for infection, acute chest syndrome and stroke.
In the previous Saudi studies, acute chest syndrome (ACS) and infections were the main causes for hospital admission; (1,2) ACS was more frequent in patients <12 years old (13.5%) than in older patients (5.1%).
These episodes deprive tissues and organs of oxygen-rich blood and can lead to vaso-occlusive crisis, acute chest syndrome, and permanent damage to organs including the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain.
Vaso-occlusion can result in osteonecrosis, skin ulcers, organ failure, acute chest syndrome, and cerebrovascular accidents.
The study also showed that L-Glutamine decreased cumulative hospital days by 41 percent and lowered the incidence of ACS (acute chest syndrome) by more than 60 percent.
06 (ANI): A study has recently warned that if Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), a potentially severe lung complication of sickle cell disease, is not treated effectively in children then it may increase the risk of respiratory failure, chronic lung disease and prolonged hospitalisation.
Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a complication of sickle cell crisis (SSC) defined by radiographic densities, fever, and respiratory symptoms [1].
Mrs Dunsin was admitted to the hospital for a c-section at 33 weeks after suffering bleeding, and then developed complications which led to an attack known as a 'sickle cell crisis.' This led to a condition called 'acute chest syndrome' - the leading cause of death for people with sickle cell disease.
The misshapen cells clog smaller blood vessels, resulting in excruciating pain and putting patients at an increased risk of infection, acute chest syndrome and stroke.
Maternal complications recorded were anaemia, different types of crisis, acute chest syndrome, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary hypertension, pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia, eclampsia and maternal death.
11 days) and fewer occurrences of potentially life-threatening acute chest syndrome (8.6% vs.

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