Liquid biopsy can be utilised to diagnose acute cellular rejection
. Transplant liquid biopsies quantitatively measure donor-derived cell-free DNA concentrations.
Similarly, in the first reported longitudinal study, Simon and collaborators reported that acute cellular rejection
could be detected by serial peripheral blood analyses of the perforin and granzyme B increased expression (17).
Allograft rejection types Number of recipients (n=ll) Chronic antibody mediated 4 rejection Acute cellular rejection
1A 1 Acute humoral rejection 5 Acute humoral rejcetion 1 and Acute cellular rejection
2A Allograft rejection types Time after transplantation Chronic antibody mediated 2 recipients within one year rejection and 2 whithin 6 months Acute cellular rejection
1A within 6 months Acute humoral rejection all within 2 weeks Acute humoral rejcetion within 2 weeks and Acute cellular rejection
2A Allograft rejection types Number of recipients positive on HR-HPV (n=8) Chronic antibody mediated 2 rejection Acute cellular rejection
1A 1 Acute humoral rejection 4 Acute humoral rejcetion 1 and Acute cellular rejection
Abbreviations ACR: Acute cellular rejection
ATG: Anti-human T-lymphocyte globulin BPAR: Biopsy-proven acute rejection CMV: Cytomegalovirus CNI: Calcineurin inhibitors eGFR: Estimated glomerular filtration rate HCV: Hepatitis C virus ICU: Intensive care unit i.v.: Intravenously LT: Liver transplantation MELD: Model for end-stage liver disease MMF: Mycophenolate mofetil PCR: Polymerase chain reaction TAC: Tacrolimus.
No histologic sign of acute cellular rejection
The viral load may be influenced by corticosteroid intake , and the histologic features of recurrent hepatitis C may be modified by immunosuppressive therapy, which harden its differentiation from acute cellular rejection
A higher age and weight at transplant, treatment for acute cellular rejection
and polycystic kidney disease were found to be significantly associated with the risk of NODAT.
50%-75% of recipients experience acute cellular rejection
, most commonly in the first 90 days, while chronic rejection (CR) occurs in 15% of patients (18).
Recipient LT3 developed an episode of graft rejection (specifically acute cellular rejection
) at day 7.
DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE CELLULAR REJECTION
IN LUNG ALLOGRAFT BIOPSIES
At follow-up, five patients were biopsied because of an increased serum creatinine (12.2%): two had an acute cellular rejection
episode (Banff Ib and IIa; at day 45 and month 8, resp.), two had interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and the other had findings that supported a BK virus infection.
The transplant kidney biopsy showed evidence of acute cellular rejection
with acute tubular necrosis that was treated with high-dose steroids.