active immunization


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immunization

 [im″u-nĭ-za´shun]
the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune. Called also inoculation and vaccination. The word vaccine originally referred to the substance used to immunize against smallpox, the first immunization developed. Now, however, the term is used for any preparation used in active immunization.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice that reviews childhood immunization schedules yearly. The recommended childhood immunization schedule is reprinted in Appendix 7-1. In Canada, the Health Protection Branch Laboratory Center for Disease Control, Health Canada, National Advisory Committee on Immunization publishes a recommended childhood vaccination schedule for Canada (reprinted in Appendix 7-3). Adult immunization schedules for the United States and Canada are found in Appendices 7-2 and 7-4.
active immunization stimulation with a specific antigen to promote antibody formation in the body. The antigenic substance may be in one of four forms: (1) dead bacteria, as in typhoid fever immunization; (2) dead viruses, as in the Salk poliomyelitis injection; (3) live attenuated virus, e.g., smallpox vaccine and Sabin polio vaccine (taken orally); and (4) toxoids, altered forms of toxins produced by bacteria, as in immunization against tetanus and diphtheria.

Since active immunization induces the body to produce its own antibodies and to go on producing them, protection against disease will last several years, in some cases for life.

Active immunization is not without risks, although research supports the efficacy of immunization programs as a measure to reduce the incidence of infectious disease. Paradoxically, the more successful an immunization program and the higher the immunization rate, the more likely it becomes that a vaccine will cause more illness and injury than its target disease. Thus the risk of disease is less threatening than the risk of an adverse reaction to the vaccine that will prevent it.

In an effort to immunize larger numbers of children against preventable infectious diseases public health officials and health care professionals in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam now enforce laws requiring children to be immunized before they enter school. Those children who come to school with incomplete or nonexistent records of immunizations are refused admittance until they are immunized.

Circumstances that require postponement of immunization include acute febrile illness, immunologic deficiency, pregnancy, immunosuppressive therapy, and administration of gamma globulin, plasma, or whole blood transfusion 6 to 8 weeks prior to the scheduled immunization.

Because of their potential for triggering anaphylaxis in hypersensitive persons, all immunizing agents should be given with caution and only after a health history has been completed on the patient. Emergency equipment and drugs should be readily at hand in all clinics and other facilities where immunizing agents are administered.
passive immunization transient immunization produced by the introduction into the system of pre-formed antibody or specifically sensitized lymphoid cells. The person immunized is protected only as long as these antibodies remain in his blood and are active—usually from 4 to 6 weeks.

ac·tive im·mu·ni·za·tion

the production of active immunity.

Active immunization

Treatment that provides immunity by challenging an individual's own immune system to produce antibody against a particular organism, in this case the rabies virus.
Mentioned in: Rabies
References in periodicals archive ?
Effects of active immunization against a synthetic peptide sequence of the inhibin a-subunit on plasma gonadotrophin concentrations, ovulation rate and lambing rate in ewes.
The endocrine effects of active immunization against GnRH have been studied in a variety of young adult male and female animals (15-17).
In order to reduce the impact of HBV infection, schedules for active immunization, double doses of active immunization and both active and passive immunization against this infection have been investigated.
This therapeutic outcome can be potentially achieved either by administering an externally generated monoclonal antibody (passive immunization) or by provoking the patient's immune system to generate such an antibody (active immunization).
Some studies have shown that capsular polysaccharide vaccine PRP administered to the pregnant woman results in a significant increase in antibody concentration to PRP in the newborn [14] and in the four weeks old breastfed infant [9], protecting them for up to six months or more, without affecting their response capacity to active immunization at two, four, six and 24 months of age [6,8,9,15].
Even as doubts about safety and efficacy caused many people to shun smallpox vaccination, excitement was growing in this era about the possibility of extending the concept of active immunization to other contagions.
Generation of T-cell immunity to the HER-2/neu protein after active immunization with HER-2/neu peptide-based vaccines.
The present study shows that the induction of auto-antibodies following the active immunization of rats with endogenous (isatin) and some exogenous (pargyline, deprenyl) monoamine oxidase inhibitors leads to a depressed state with elements of anxiety in experimental animals.
Compared to more standard anti-cancer therapies that are toxic to normal as well as cancerous cells, active immunization (i.e., vaccines) offers many advantages.
"Active immunization is a wonderful way to go because of the ease of administration, but there are problems with it.
and Madison, N.J.-based Wyeth Vaccines, FluMist is the first influenza vaccine delivered as a nasal mist and is indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by influenza A and B viruses in healthy children from 5 to 17 years of age, and healthy adults from 18 to 49 years of age.
"Decline of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in a region of high risk; impact of passive and active immunization." Pediatr Infect Dis J.