active immunization


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immunization

 [im″u-nĭ-za´shun]
the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune. Called also inoculation and vaccination. The word vaccine originally referred to the substance used to immunize against smallpox, the first immunization developed. Now, however, the term is used for any preparation used in active immunization.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice that reviews childhood immunization schedules yearly. The recommended childhood immunization schedule is reprinted in Appendix 7-1. In Canada, the Health Protection Branch Laboratory Center for Disease Control, Health Canada, National Advisory Committee on Immunization publishes a recommended childhood vaccination schedule for Canada (reprinted in Appendix 7-3). Adult immunization schedules for the United States and Canada are found in Appendices 7-2 and 7-4.
active immunization stimulation with a specific antigen to promote antibody formation in the body. The antigenic substance may be in one of four forms: (1) dead bacteria, as in typhoid fever immunization; (2) dead viruses, as in the Salk poliomyelitis injection; (3) live attenuated virus, e.g., smallpox vaccine and Sabin polio vaccine (taken orally); and (4) toxoids, altered forms of toxins produced by bacteria, as in immunization against tetanus and diphtheria.

Since active immunization induces the body to produce its own antibodies and to go on producing them, protection against disease will last several years, in some cases for life.

Active immunization is not without risks, although research supports the efficacy of immunization programs as a measure to reduce the incidence of infectious disease. Paradoxically, the more successful an immunization program and the higher the immunization rate, the more likely it becomes that a vaccine will cause more illness and injury than its target disease. Thus the risk of disease is less threatening than the risk of an adverse reaction to the vaccine that will prevent it.

In an effort to immunize larger numbers of children against preventable infectious diseases public health officials and health care professionals in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam now enforce laws requiring children to be immunized before they enter school. Those children who come to school with incomplete or nonexistent records of immunizations are refused admittance until they are immunized.

Circumstances that require postponement of immunization include acute febrile illness, immunologic deficiency, pregnancy, immunosuppressive therapy, and administration of gamma globulin, plasma, or whole blood transfusion 6 to 8 weeks prior to the scheduled immunization.

Because of their potential for triggering anaphylaxis in hypersensitive persons, all immunizing agents should be given with caution and only after a health history has been completed on the patient. Emergency equipment and drugs should be readily at hand in all clinics and other facilities where immunizing agents are administered.
passive immunization transient immunization produced by the introduction into the system of pre-formed antibody or specifically sensitized lymphoid cells. The person immunized is protected only as long as these antibodies remain in his blood and are active—usually from 4 to 6 weeks.

ac·tive im·mu·ni·za·tion

the production of active immunity.

Active immunization

Treatment that provides immunity by challenging an individual's own immune system to produce antibody against a particular organism, in this case the rabies virus.
Mentioned in: Rabies

immunization

the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune. See also vaccination.

active immunization
stimulation with a specific antigen to promote an immune response. In the context of infectious diseases, the antigenic substances may include: (1) inactivated bacteria, as in botulism immunization; (2) inactivated viruses, as in the canine parvovirus vaccination; (3) live attenuated viruses, e.g. rabies virus, and (4) toxoids, chemically treated toxins produced by bacteria, as in immunization against tetanus and pasteurellosis. Any of a vast number of foreign substances may induce an active immune response.
Since active immunization induces the body to produce its own antibodies and specifically reactive cells and to go on producing them, protection against disease will last several years, in some cases for life.
antihormone immunization
immunization against hormones, e.g. against androstenedione for the stimulation of ovulation in ewes, is now a commercial reality and promises to be a significant management tool in intensive animal production. See also immunological contraception.
deliberate immunization
the administration of an immunogen, usually by injection but sometimes orally or by inhalation, for the purpose of producing immunity.
natural immunization
stimulation of the immune system through exposure to antigens that have not been deliberately administered.
passive immunization
transient immunization produced by the introduction into the system of pre-formed antibody or specifically reactive lymphoid cells. The animal immunized is protected only as long as these antibodies or cells remain in the blood and are active—usually from 4 to 6 weeks. The immunity may be natural, as in the transfer of maternal antibody to offspring, or artificial, passive immunity following inoculation of antibodies or immune cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, once these were eliminated over a period of another 3 months, active immunization was unable to confer sustained protection at 7 months.
In the United States, Prevnar 13 is indicated in adults 50 years of age and older for active immunization for the prevention of pneumonia and invasive disease caused by the 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes contained in the vaccine (1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F).
Healthcare company Pfizer (NYSE:PFE) reported on Monday that it has received approval from the European Commission (EC) for an expanded indication for Nimenrix (meningococcal group A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine) for active immunization against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis.
The company is seeking approval for active immunization of infants and toddlers for the prevention of invasive disease and otitis media.
FluMist, the intranasal, live, attenuated influenza virus vaccine, is approved for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by influenza A and B viruses in healthy children and adolescents aged 5-17 years, and in healthy adults aged 18-49 years.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under an accelerated approval pathway for adults 50 years of age and older for active immunization for the prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive disease caused by the 13 serotypes contained in the vaccine.
Prior to this US FDA approval, the FluLaval Quadrivalent vaccine was only approved for active immunization against influenza A subtype viruses and type B viruses, in persons two years of age and older, added the company.
Prior to this, the vaccine was only approved for active immunization against influenza A subtype viruses and type B viruses, in persons 3 years of age and older.
The approval is for active immunization against influenza disease caused by the H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/2004 influenza virus in adults aged 18-64 who may be at an increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus.
The approval, announced April 17, is for active immunization against influenza disease caused by the HSN1 A/Vietnam/ 1203/2004 influenza virus in adults aged 18-64 who may be at an increased risk of exposure to the HSN1 influenza virus.
It is also used for active immunization for wound care in persons who have not received a tetanus toxoid--containing preparation in the preceding 5 years.