Expression of Crim1 was the most greatly up-altered while DEDD was the most downregulated gene in abnormal activated macrophages
induced by Bap.
Their findings do not fully describe the range of functions that activated macrophages
exert, but specialized T cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells) presumably participate in macrophage polarized activation [42, 43].
Alem et al., "Memory TH2 cells induce alternatively activated macrophages
to mediate protection against nematode parasites," Nature Medicine, vol.
M1: classically activated phenotype; M2: alternatively activated macrophages
; ATM: adipose tissue-derived macrophages; Mox: atherosclerosis-associated macrophages; TAMs: tumour- associated macrophages.
Although these cells are highly heterogeneous, they are classified into two extreme subtypes: the classically activated M1, which has a proinflammatory profile and expresses CD11c as a phenotypic marker, and the alternatively activated macrophages
M2, which exhibit an anti-inflammatory profile and express CD206 .
In contrast, when classically activated macrophages
showed low levels of TGF-[beta], this can be explained by the fact that LPS acts negatively on the production of TGF-[beta] .
Additionally, oxidative burst is also required in the clearance of apoptotic cells by alternatively activated macrophages
during wound healing process .
Together the activated macrophages
, B lymphocytes, and antibodies form granulomas in the affected tissue.
The entry of monocytes into peripherial tissues precedes their differentiation into activated macrophages
, a process that involves the action of interferon-[Gamma], which in turn leads to expression of P2X7 receptors (31).
Bone-resorbing osteoclasts and activated macrophages
express high amounts of type 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP; EC 184.108.40.206) (1).
Macrophages have long been known to participate in the induction of new blood vessel growth in a number of different settings, including pathologic and physiologic wound healing and tumors.[49-51] Macrophages are essential for optimal wound healing, and the introduction of activated macrophages
into healing wounds results in enhanced wound repair.
As for the three treated animals that died, MacEwen believes their tumor burden was already too high for the activated macrophages