Unfortunately, identifying the specific taxa that produced them is not possible, but their association with various fossils from acanthodian, actinopterygian
, sarcopterygian, and rhipidistian (crossopterygian) fish suggests that any of these are potential sources of the coprolites and nonspiraled cololites.
Fish otoliths are the specialized hard parts of the actinopterygian
and sarcopterygian acoustico-lateralis system, situated in the membranous labyrinths in the otic capsules of the neurocranium.
Scales of an actinopterygian
from the Long Quarry Beds, lower Pridoli (erroneously treated as Ludlow in Marss 1992), in Capel Horeb Main Quarry, southern Wales, were preliminarily identified as Andreolepis hedei?
The evolution and interrelationships of the Actinopterygian
Evolution of feeding mechanisms in primitive actinopterygian
fishes: a functional analysis of Polypterus, Lepisosteus, and Amia.
The physiology of the gills of actinopterygian
fishes has been well studied.
Genomic information is now available for the actinopterygian
holostean spotted gar, which has 13 paralogs (copies of Aqp0, -1, -3, -4, -8, -9, -12, -14, and -15, with two copies each of Aqp 10 and 11; Finn et al., 2014).
Evolution of the feeding mechanism in primitive actinopterygian
fishes: a functional anatomical analysis of Polypterus, Lepisosteus and Amia.
As stressed by authors such as Hilton & Bemis (1999), there are documented cases, within actinopterygian
fishes, of remarkable morphological variation within a single genus, a single species, and even within a single population of the same species.
The functional design represented by basal loricarioids is therefore relatively unmodified from the basic biomechanical design shared with outgroup actinopterygian
(ray-finned fish) taxa (Lauder 1985).
(2012): Preliminary study of the Lepisosteids (Actinopterygian
) from the Upper Cretaceous of "Lo Hueco" (Cuenca, Spain).