Figure 4A & B) Gram staining was performed to distinguish between actinomycetoma and eumycetoma which showed gram negative septate hyphae.
6] Differentiation between actinomycetoma and eumycetoma is important because of their differences in response to treatment.
3,4The clinical picture of botryomycosis closely resembles other diseases causing fistula; such as scrofuloderma, actinomycosis, actinomycetoma
, eumycetoma and atypical mycobacterial infections.
When the causative agent for Mycetoma is a fungus, it is termed as Eumycetoma and when it is caused by filamentous bacteria, it is termed as Actinomycetoma
usually saprophytic to humans, can cause local cutaneous fistulized nodules known as actinomycetoma
Eumycetoma is a fungal infection whereas actinomycetoma
is caused by bacteria belonging to the order of Actinomycetales.
Culture was diagnostic for actinomycetoma
, as it grew Nocardia brasiliensis, Dr.
is amenable to medical treatment by antibiotics and antimicrobial agent combinations, while combined medical and surgical treatment is the gold standard in eumycetoma.
1] Pinoy, in 1913, subdivided the mycetomas into two groups: one caused by Eumycetes or "true fungi", Eumycetoma and other by aerobic filamentous bacteria belonging to class "Actinomycetes" named Actinomycetoma
Refractory craniofacial actinomycetoma
due to Streptomyces somaliensis that required salvage therapy with amikacin and imipenem.
Mycetoma caused by microaerophilic actinomycetes is termed actinomycetoma
, and mycetoma caused by true fungi is called eumycetoma.
Zacarias, "Efficacy of imipenem therapy for Nocardia actinomycetomas
refractory to sulfonamides," Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol.