Actinomycosis, nocardiosis, and actinomycetoma
. Dermatol Clin 1996 14(l):85-95
(Figure 4A & B) Gram staining was performed to distinguish between actinomycetoma
and eumycetoma which showed gram negative septate hyphae.
(5) The condition can be caused by various organisms, these include both bacterial (Actinomycetoma
) and fungal (eumycetoma) causes.
In vitro studies of antibiotic sensitivities of Streptomyces somaliensis-a cause of human actinomycetoma
. Trans Rl Soc Trop Med Hyg 1989; 83(2): 265-8.
Diabetes mellitus and HIV infection could also be other predisposing factors.3,4The clinical picture of botryomycosis closely resembles other diseases causing fistula; such as scrofuloderma, actinomycosis, actinomycetoma
, eumycetoma and atypical mycobacterial infections.
When the causative agent for Mycetoma is a fungus, it is termed as Eumycetoma and when it is caused by filamentous bacteria, it is termed as Actinomycetoma
.  Mycetoma is endemic in India, Pakistan, parts of Africa, Central and South America and Indonesia.
The disease could be caused by a fungal infection (eumycetoma) or aerobic Actinomycetes (actinomycetoma
) and produces an area of localized swelling containing suppurative granulomas and multiple sinus tracts extruding macroscopic colored granules .
Streptomyces spp., usually saprophytic to humans, can cause local cutaneous fistulized nodules known as actinomycetoma
Mycetoma is a tumor-like lesion produced by a fungus (eumycetoma) or bacteria (actinomycetoma
), typically encountered in arid areas rather than humid environments.
Culture was diagnostic for actinomycetoma
, as it grew Nocardia brasiliensis, Dr.
is amenable to medical treatment by antibiotics and antimicrobial agent combinations, while combined medical and surgical treatment is the gold standard in eumycetoma.
 Pinoy, in 1913, subdivided the mycetomas into two groups: one caused by Eumycetes or "true fungi", Eumycetoma and other by aerobic filamentous bacteria belonging to class "Actinomycetes" named Actinomycetoma
. Mycetoma is characterized by the triad of tumefaction of affected tissue, multiple discharging sinuses, and the presence of oozing granules.