acromegaly


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acromegaly

 [ak″ro-meg´ah-le]
excessive enlargement of the limbs due to thickening of bones and soft tissues, caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone, usually from a tumor of the pituitary gland. In adults whose bone growth has stopped, the bones most affected are those of the face, jaw, hands, and feet (see accompanying illustration).
 Appearance in acromegaly: A, facial appearance; B, acromegalic hand (upper) and normal hand (lower). From Dorland's, 2000.
Gradual enlargement of paranasal sinuses, prominence of nose and supraorbital ridges, prognathism, widely separated teeth, and an underbite are part of the coarsening of facial features. Early signs include increased metabolism and strength and profuse sweating. Later joint pain, weakness, and sometimes diabetes mellitus and visual disturbances are seen. In children overproduction of growth hormone stimulates growth of long bones and results in gigantism. Surgical treatment includes removal of the tumor or the pituitary gland (transsphenoidal hypophysectomy), pituitary irradiation, or a combination of the two. Drug therapy with the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine may be used as adjuvant therapy in conjunction with either surgery or radiation.

ac·ro·meg·a·ly

(ak'rō-meg'ă-lē), [MIM*102200]
A disorder marked by progressive enlargement of peripheral parts of the body, especially the head, face, hands, and feet, resulting from excessive secretion of somatotropin; organomegaly and metabolic disorders occur; diabetes mellitus may develop.
Synonym(s): acromegalia
[acro- + G. megas, large]

acromegaly

(ăk′rō-mĕg′ə-lē)
n.
A chronic disorder caused by overproduction of human growth hormone usually by the pituitary gland, characterized by enlargement of the bones of the extremities and the skull and often by the development of complications such as diabetes, hypertension, and osteoarthritis.

ac′ro·me·gal′ic (-mĭ-găl′ĭk) adj. & n.

acromegaly

A disease caused by excess growth hormone (GH) by anterior pituitary or extrapituitary origin that occurs after the closure of epiphyseal plates after puberty. Excess GH production that precedes the closure of the epiphyseal growth plates results in gigantism in afflicted children and adolescents

Aetiology
Secretion of GH by anterior pituitary; GH-releasing hormone by hypothalamic tumours; ectopic GH production by small-cell carcinoma of lung, carcinoids, islet cell tumours, adrenal adenomas or other endocrine tumours.
 
Clinical findings
Coarsened, enlarged facies, lips, tongue, nose, jaw, hands, feet, supraorbital ridge and frontal bones, widely spaced teeth, bone proliferation in extremities, soft tissue thickening, hyperhidrosis, macroglossia, headache, amenorrhoea, impotence, somnolence, moodiness, glucose intolerance, cardiomegaly with heart failure (acromegalic heart disease), hypertension, carpal tunnel syndrome, sleep apnoea.

Management
Surgery—endonasal transphenoidal excision of the pituitary tumour; medical—somatostatin analogues (e.g., octreotide, lanreotide, which inhibit growth hormone production); in unresponsive cases dopamine agonists may work.

acromegaly

Endocrinology A disease of adults due to excess hGH secretion of anterior pituitary or extrapituitary origin, or due to excess secretion of GH-RH by hypothalamic tumors or ectopic hGH production by small cell carcinoma of the lungs, carcinoids, islet cell tumors, adrenal adenomas or other 'endocrine' tumors Clinical Coarsened, enlarged facies, lips, nose, jaw, hands, feet, and frontal bones, widely spaced teeth, bone proliferation in extremities, soft tissue thickening, hyperhidrosis, macroglossia, headache, amenorrhea, impotence, somnolence, moodiness, glucose intolerance, HTN, heart disease, carpal tunnel syndrome, sleep apnea. See Giantism. See Acromegaloidism.

ac·ro·meg·a·ly

(ak'rō-meg'ă-lē)
A disorder marked by progressive enlargement of the head, face, hands, and feet, due to excessive secretion of somatotropin; organomegaly and metabolic disorders occur; diabetes mellitus may develop.
[acro- + G. megas, large]

acromegaly

A serious disorder resulting from overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland during adult life, after the growing ends of the bones (the epiphyses) have fused and the normal growth process is complete. The condition is usually the result of a benign tumour of the pituitary gland. There is no change in body height, but gradual enlargement of the jaw, tongue, nose, ribs, hands and feet occurs. There is also CUTIS VERTICIS GYRATA. If excessive growth hormone production occurs before the epiphyses have fused the result is gigantism. Acromegaly is treated by removing the cause.

acromegaly

a chronic disease characterized by enlargement of the head, hands and feet, causing gigantism. It is caused by over-secretion of growth hormones from the anterior PITUITARY GLAND.

Acromegaly

A rare disease resulting from excessive growth hormone caused by a benign tumor. If such a tumor develops within the first 10 years of life, the result is gigantism (in which growth is accelerated) and not acromegaly. Symptoms include coarsening of the facial features, enlargement of the hands, feet, ears, and nose, jutting of the jaw, and a long face.

ac·ro·meg·a·ly

(ak'rō-meg'ă-lē) [MIM*102200]
Disorder marked by progressive enlargement of peripheral body parts due to excessive secretion of somatotropin; organomegaly and metabolic disorders occur; diabetes mellitus may develop.
Synonym(s): hyperpituitarism.
[acro- + G. megas, large]
References in periodicals archive ?
The blood antioxidant system is impaired in patients with active acromegaly, what indicates the development of oxidative stress [7].
However, ultrasonographic evaluation of carotid arteries showed a significant increase of IMT in patients with acromegaly only in some studies (12,13).
In order to obtain a more specific self-estimated disease perception, we applied the AcroQol (Acromegaly Quality of Live Questionnaire).
* The report reviews key players involved in the therapeutics development for Acromegaly and enlists all their major and minor projects
Of the 37 patients with acromegaly initially recruited, eight were excluded because of refusal to participate in the study (6 patients) or inability to reach the eligibility criteria in the FOT (2 patients).
The time being passed from the published studies, their relatively small sample size (10-11) and widening of US use in musculoskelatal evaluation lead us to re-examine the topic, and highlight the availability and ease of use of this method for detection of soft tissue involvement in acromegaly.
McCune Albright syndrome may lead to pituitary micro or macroadenomas and related excessive secretion of GH and/or prolactin, acromegaly due to severe FD, unilateral or bilateral macroorchidism and rarely a clinical picture of precocious puberty secondary to sulphatase activity.
Increased aortic root diameters in patients with acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 159:97-103.
Mahsun E[currency]amgil, who is suffering from rare disease of Acromegaly, supplicates for help as his hands and a leg coarsens continuously.
In our September 2013 issue we have the following scientific contributions; The antibody response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Hashimoto's thyroiditis; Obesity and insulin resistance: Management in diabetes; Klinefelter syndrome; Exenatide-induced acute renal failure; Cranium metastasis: An unusual presentation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma; Association of acromegaly and multiple myeloma; Radiocontrast-related leucocytoclastic vasculitis misdiagnosed as diabetic foot ulcer in a type 2 diabetic patient; DPP-4 Inhibition in Diabetic Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.
"The patient was suffering from acromegaly -- a complication caused by the excessive growth hormone in adulthood," said Dr Ali Al Houni, a consultant endocrinologist at the hospital.
KATE DERL-DAVIS was diagnosed with acromegaly, a tumour in the pituitary gland which increases the level of growth hormones and causes severe joint pain, in 2009.