acid phosphatase


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Related to acid phosphatase: acid phosphatase stain, Acid Phosphatase Test

acid

 [as´id]
1. sour.
2. a substance that yields hydrogen ions in solution and from which hydrogen may be displaced by a metal to form a salt. For the various acids, see under the specific name, such as acetic acid. All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). Other properties of acids include a sour taste and the ability to cause certain dyes to undergo a color change. A common example of this is the ability of acids to change litmus paper from blue to red.

Inorganic acids are distinguished as binary or hydracids, and ternary or oxyacids; the former contain no oxygen; in the latter, the hydrogen is united to an electronegative element by oxygen. The hydracids are distinguished by the prefix hydro-. The names of acids end in -ic, except in the case in which there are two degrees of oxygenation. The acid containing the greater amount of oxygen has the termination -ic, the one having the lesser amount has the termination -ous. Acids with the termination -ic form the salts ending in -ate; those ending in -ous form the salts ending in -ite. The salts of hydracids end in -ide. These rules are demonstrated by the acids and salts: hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), sulfurous acid (H2SO3), sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). Acids are called monobasic, dibasic, tribasic, and tetrabasic, respectively, when they contain one, two, three, or four replaceable hydrogen atoms.

The most common organic acids are carboxylic acids, containing the carboxyl group (-COOH); examples are acetic acid, citric acid, amino acids, and fatty acids. Their salts and esters end in -ate, e.g., ethyl acetate. Other organic acids are phenols and sulfonic acids.

Acids play a vital role in the chemical processes that are a normal part of the functions of the cells and tissues of the body. A stable balance between acids and bases in the body is essential to life. See also acid-base balance.
acid elution test air-dried blood smears are fixed in 80 per cent methanol and immersed in a pH 3.3 buffer; all hemoglobins are eluted except fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is seen in red blood cells after staining.
inorganic acid an acid containing no carbon atoms.
acid perfusion test Bernstein test.
acid phosphatase a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 5.0. Serum activity of the prostatic isoenzyme is greatly increased in metastatic cancer of the prostate and is used to monitor the course of the disease.

phosphatase

 [fos´fah-tās]
any of a group of enzymes capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of esterified phosphoric acid, with liberation of inorganic phosphate, found in practically all tissues, body fluids, and cells, including erythrocytes and leukocytes.
acid phosphatase see acid phosphatase.
alkaline phosphatase see alkaline phosphatase.

ac·id phos·pha·tase

a phosphatase with an optimum pH of less than 7 (for several isozymes, it is 5.4), notably present in the prostate gland; demonstrable in lysosomes with Gomori nonspecific acid phosphatase stain; it hydrolyzes many orthophosphoric monoesters.

acid phosphatase

/ac·id phos·pha·tase/ (as´id fos´fah-tās) a hydrolase found in mammalian liver, spleen, bone marrow, plasma and formed blood elements, and prostate gland, catalyzing the cleavage of orthophosphate from orthophosphoric monoesters under acid conditions; determination of its activity in serum is an important diagnostic test.

acid phosphatase

an enzyme found in the kidneys, serum, semen, and prostate gland. It is elevated in serum in prostate cancer and in trauma. Normal concentrations in serum are 0 to 1.1 Bodansky units/mL. See also alkaline phosphatase.

acid phosphatase

A group of enzymes (EC 3.1.3.2) with broad specificity which transphosphorylate.

Haemolysis causes false increase; AP decreased precipitously if improperly preserved. Serum AP was once used to diagnose and monitor the progress of prostate cancer; however, given its non-specificity, AP has been replaced by newer tests—e.g., serum PSA, and immunoassay of prostatic AP.
 
Patient prep
Prostate massage, catheterisation, or rectal examination should be avoided 48 hours before obtaining specimen.
 
Specimen
Frozen serum.

Normally present
Prostate, semen, liver, spleen, RBCs, bone marrow, platelets.
 
Increased in
Prostate cancer or infarction, Paget’s disease, Gaucher’s disease, multiple myeloma.

Ref range
0–1.1 Bodansky U.

acid phosphatase

A group of enzymes with broad specificity which transphosphorylates; APs are present in the prostate gland, semen, liver, spleen, RBCs, BM, platelets Ref range 0-1.1 Bodansky U ↑ Prostate CA or infarction, Paget's disease, Gaucher's disease, multiple myeloma. See PSA.

ac·id phos·pha·tase

(as'id fos'fă-tās)
A phosphatase with an optimal pH of less than 7.0, notably present in the prostate gland.

ac·id phos·pha·tase

(as'id fos'fă-tās)
A phosphatase with an optimal pH of less than 7.0, notably present in the prostate gland.

acid phosphatase

see acid phosphatase.
References in periodicals archive ?
pH dependence and solvent isotopo effects in the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters by human prostatic acid phosphatase.
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b as serum marker for osteoclastic activity.
Bacterial inoculations, in the presence of chromium stress, was recorded to cause further enhancement in acid phosphatase activity in comparison with the respective control treatment which is a clear manifestation of bacterial involvement in promoting acid phosphatase activity especially in the presence of stress to help the plant to survive under stress conditions.
7] Nonstandard abbreviations: AST, aspartate aminotransferase; LD, lactate dehydrogenase; ACP, acid phosphatase; CK, creatine kinase; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor [kappa] B ligand; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; AD, autosomal dominant; AR, autosomal recessive; XR, X-linked recessive; TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.
2010) reported that leaf acid phosphatase of Croton floribundus Spreng, grown in a soil from the same degraded area of the present study, showed the lowest values in the treatment that received soil-inoculum, which evidences the importance of microbial activity, such as AMF, for the absorption of nutrients by plants.
exserta in a nonactivated state, we used cryosections of unstimulated animals and the following enzymes to serve as identifying proxies due to their roles in phagocytosis and encapsulation: (1) acid phosphatase, (2) alkaline phosphatase, (3) non-specific esterase, (4) [beta]-glucuronidase, (5) peroxidase, and (6) phenoloxidase.
Since previously, an association between acid phosphatase locus 1 ([ACP.
Alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, leucine arylamidase, and jV-acteyl-P-glucosaminidase (NAGase) were the only enzymes available for analysis.
On POD 14, the calpain inhibitor's effect on tumor bone tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain and radiology was also carefully investigated.
Mineral fertilization (NPK) increased acid phosphatase activity (phosphatases catalyze the hydrolysis of esters and anhydrides of [H.
These two researchers from the University of Chicago castrated men with metastatic prostate cancer and showed that levels of a chemical called acid phosphatase were reduced, indicating improvement in the cancer.