Our data should further the understanding of possible links between polarity determination and the physiology of achlorophyllous
Protothecosis is caused by saprophytic achlorophyllous
algae of the genus Prototheca, which are closely related to Chlorella green algae (DILLBERGER et al., 1988; SIQUEIRA et al., 2008; PRESSLER, 2012).
The spores of all studied species were monolete, ellipsoidal to spheroidal, light to dark brown or yellow, and achlorophyllous
. The perispore was smooth, with small papillae, or reticulate.
Fern gametophytes (haploid phase) may also be associated with endophytic fungi; in particular, the subterranean achlorophyllous
gametophytes within the Pteridophytes, which are frequently infected by fungal endophytes; hence few studies on this matter are found (Bruchmann 1904, 1906, 1908, Campbell 1907, Whittier 1977, Boullard 1979, Peterson et al.
Prototheca species are aerobic, achlorophyllous
, algaelike, unicellular organisms.
Fungi are achlorophyllous
, spore bearing, non vascular organism, which reproduce both sexually and asexually and whose filamentous and much branched plant body (mycelium) is surrounded by cell wall made of chitin or fungus cellulose or both.
Subterranean structures and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous
Dictyostega orobanchoides (Burmanniaceae).
Also notable in this regard are families which are heteromycotrophic, such as Petrosaviaceae, Triuridaceae, and achlorophyllous
Burmanniaceae and Orchidaceae (Carlquist, 1975; Wagner, 1977).
In April 1837 John Miers collected close to Rio de Janeiro a curious, achlorophyllous
, almost leafless plant, with a slender, rarely branched stem, bearing a terminal bifurcate, cincinnous (scorpioid cyme) inflorescence (Miers 1841).
However, more than 100 species of orchid are achlorophyllous
, which means that they are completely dependent on their fungal partners throughout their lifetime (Leake, 1994, 2005; Bidartondo, 2005).
The herbs are either achlorophyllous
and mycotrophic or green and autotrophic.
Leaves opposite, rarely verticillate (Curtia) or alternate (Swertia), simple, entire or reduced to scales (Bartonia and the achlorophyllous
genera); scattered mucilage cells often present in the epidermis and mesophyll; petiole without stipules but occasionally with interpetiolar line.