The factors leading to a bloom of these species over the more common acetic acid bacteria found on the surface of grapes are unknown.
All of these fermentations contained acetic acid bacteria, showed an accumulation pattern for acetic acid that is atypical of Acetobacter aceti, and arrested before acetic acid levels had become inhibitory.
These acetic acid bacteria seem to be confined to specific batches of wine and are apparently not readily spread to other fermentations or wines in the winery in contrast to what is seen with A.
Or, alternately, these lower levels of acetic acid and ethyl acetate in these fermentations infected with atypical acetic acid bacteria may not be as attractive to fruit flies, and thus the bacteria may not be vectored to other fermentations within the winery.
This indicated tolerance of the isolate to acidic conditions and ability to produce organic acids from alcohol, thereby proving its affiliation to the acetic acid bacteria group.
Currently, 6 genera of acetic acid bacteria are recognized in the Alpha Proteobacteria lineage (Figure).
The safety of lactic and acetic acid bacteria has been confirmed over the years (5).
For example, the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter and Gluconobacter are typically present in low populations (below 10 (2) cfu per mL) on healthy berries, while their populations can reach more than 10 (5) cfu per mL on damaged or Botrytis-infected grapes.
2002 "The occurrence, control and esoteric effect of acetic acid bacteria in winemaking.
Lactic acid bacteria also produce acetic acid, as long as there is significant sugar around; and the aptly named acetic acid bacteria
, notably Acetobacter aceti, can convert both glucose and ethanol to acetic acid--as they do on purpose in vinegar production.
comes from the growth of acetic acid bacteria
in wine in the presence of air.